Tuesday, June 30, 2009

CRM Essay

The letters CRM stands for Customer Relationship Management. Over the last three or four years, customer relationship management has become a popular catchphrase. Although CRM in one form or another has been around for some time, the current interest in CRM has developed with a combination of new technologies that enable companies to ensure better customer relationships. A good CRM strategy is vital in the Supermarket retail sector. This is because there is increasing competition for customers, as well as the widespread realisation that customer retention and loyalty is just as important as customer acquisition. Another reason driving this renewed interest in CRM within the retail sector is the shift in the balance of power to customers. Better-informed customers are more aware of alternatives, and as customers become more informed consumers of services and products, customer expectations rise and change, and their sophistication increases, too. This essay will therefore explore elements of the CRM framework and see how this is utilised in the UK retail sector.

The principle of CRM is that the more information a company has about its customers, the better. It involves managing the customer relationship across all its interfaces with the company as one entire process According to Cook, S, 2002:

"The Strategic process of identifying desirable customers segements, micro-segments or individual customers on a one-to one basis and developing integrated programmes that maximum both value to the customer and the lifetime value of customers to the organisation through targeted customer acquisition, profit enhancing activities and retention"

From an application perspective, CRM is often talked about in terms of sales force automation (SFA), marketing automation, customer services and support. However, CRM really encompasses all business processes that impact the customer experience. Essentially the goal of CRM is to:

" Increase the lifetime value of a company's relationship with target customers. Optimize the effectiveness of marketing, selling and servicing of target customers and maximise the value of customer expenditures for mutual company/customer gain" (Marcouse & Gillespie, 1999, p121)

The above three goals seem to be very apparent in the retail supermarket sector as CRM is required as a operating model and to understand how it affects the customer experience. Eventually, it will permeate and impact all company initiatives. It must translate into effective business change in terms of insight, processes, systems and behavior that result in measurable return. Hill and O'Sullivan(2001) have identified The 10 Key principles of CRM:
  1. Value Segmentation. Segmentation is based in customer needs, preferences, behaviors and economic potential, which provides the basis for resource allocation decisions in marketing, sales and service.
  2. Institutional Memory: When the customer interacts with us, everyone in the enterprise is aware of prior inter actions, outstanding issues and pending opporotunities.
  3. Collaboration. Customers are involved in the specification, design and/or delivery ala desired result.
  4. Touch-point Alignment Customers are able to do business With you through multiple channels, which are aligned with your customer r needs and, their value to your business
  5. One & Done. Customer needs are solved during the first contact.
  6. Real-time information manager. Your employees have real-time access to the right information in order to make customer-based decisions and resolve issue immediately.
  7. Customer Scorecard: Employee performance requirements arid measures are designed to drive specific customer behaviors (e.g. share of spend, loyalty, average value of customer) that are measured explicitly.
  8. Closed-Loop Processes. Integrated front and hack office systems ensure that information and workflow carry through the entire enterprise to their logical conclusion, closing the customer loop and enabling continuous knowledge capture.
  9. Listening & Learning Posts: Forums facilitate information sharing and learning among your customers that help them do business with you, learn from each other and provide valuable input to your business processes and operations.
  10. Customer Experience Management: You have mapped all "touch points" between you and your customers and are able to deliver a consistent, high quality experience that provides added value to the customer."
Supermarkets have embraced the change of new technology, and have employed new technology as an integral part of their CRM Plan. Advanced technology can used to give the customer an competitive advantage which encourages a brand loyalty infrastructure and supports the future of online commerce. An example of such technology can be seen with "Tesco", the "biggest e-grocer in the world" they have purchased "Autonomy's" technology to power the next generation of its online shopping service. Tesco has used the technology to automatically manage products across its catalogue, as well as provide advanced personalisation, through both personal computers and mobile phones, for customers using the tesco.com site. Tesco has also created "personal shopping assistants" on the Web, as a way of suggesting products and services that are appropriate to customers' needs and interests. The technology is designed to understand customers' interests automatically as they interact with the content on the site, providing them with interesting and appropriate product suggestions and promotions, whenever they are online. Dr. Mike Lynch, CEO of Autonomy, explained:

" For example, beer connoisseurs will receive news of the latest continental lagers or real ales, chocolate addicts will be shown the latest confectionery, and vegetarians will avoid the latest meat promotions - without the need to fill in online forms specifying user interests."

The above demonstrates that Tesco has employed technology to carry out part of its CRM plan, as it has utilised technology to automate the entire online shopping experience, enhance personalisation, and turn one-time visitors into regular users.

Terry Leahy, CEO of Tesco, said:
"Customers love Internet shopping. This year we have doubled to half a million the numbers signed up to shop with us on the net.Customers know and trust Tesco and that gives us a real competitive advantage. 30% of our customers shop nowhere else on-line which means Tesco is driving the use of the Internet.

Tesco.com, the UK's leading online retailer, will this week officially launch its Pocket Shopper application, which will allow registered users with Microsoft Pocket PC-based mobile devices to submit their orders on the move.Analysts said the move, revealed by Computer Weekly in January, will provide a boost to the burgeoning UK m-commerce market, which will be worth [pound]2.63bn by 2005, according to research firm GartnerG2. The Pocket Shopper application, available for download from the Tesco.com Web site, allows consumers to choose their shopping, from a total of 20,000 items, and pay by credit card without having to a connect to a network. The next time the user goes online, their order will be sent to Tesco.com, which delivers the goods to their home from their local Tesco store. The Pocket Shopper application is aimed, according to Carolyn Bradley, chief operating officer at Tesco.com, at what she described as "long suffering commuters".
"Being able to shop anywhere is an advantage many commuters would love to have," she said.
"As prices tumble, the technology will become available to everyone."
Duncan Brown, consulting director at analyst firm Ovum, said m-commerce is ideally suited to supermarkets."Mobile grocery shopping has a good chance of working as it is just another step on the evolutionary path from loyalty cards and online shopping," he said. However, Brown warned, companies should not be over-ambitious with their mobile projects.
"M-commerce should be very specific - the consumer's usual order or a delivery at a certain time," he said.
"If you can get it right it has the potential to be very popular," Brown added.

In recent years competitive markets have been flooded with customer loyalty programmes which is considerd a cost-effective customer relationship management strategy. To obtain customer loyalty, the biggest single step, and the one with the widest implications, is the progressive introduction of loyalty cards., According to Customer Loyalty today, 51% of all British shoppers possess a loyalty card and of those who shop in a supermarkets which offer them 70% have a card. Through loyalty card schemes, retailers have been able to build up databases of customer profiles and preferences. Supermarkets are building relationships with customers by sending them individually adressed letters and customised promotions. In return for a very small discount, typically 1 per cent, the store gets what it really wants, information about its customers. It is hardly getting what it says it wants, loyalty; when all stores have cards, and all customers have cards for all stores, we will be back where we began. With this difference: the stores' computers will know more about us than we know about ourselves. There are, of course, safeguards: there is statute law on data protection. Research carried out by Mori for the Black Sun Consultancy, has shown that supermarket loyalty cards do not encourage shoppers to stay loyal to any particular chain. The study found that although over 50% of the UK's supermarket shoppers carried a loyalty card, 69% said that it did not persuade them to shop at any particular chain.Nine out often people said that they were more concerned with getting a better price for their shopping than collecting points on loyalty cards. Many shoppers said that they were forgetful about the points, and 25% said they "rarely" or "never" redeemed the points, according to the article in the Sunday Times. Some supermarket chains seem to have taken notice of the research, with Safeway having dropped its loyalty card back in 2000, while Waitrose never introduced a card scheme, saying they were a waste of time.

Having seen rival supermarket chain Sainsbury's join the Nectar loyalty card scheme, Asda claims that such cards do not work.The UK-based food retailer, owned by US giant Wal-Mart, has unveiled new research by NOP that shows that plastic cards fail to keep customers loyal. Asda said the survey, conducted at the beginning of September, shows that shoppers across the UK, regardless of their favourite store overwhelmingly prefer lower prices to plastic points. Over nine out of ten people (93%) said they would prefer lower prices to loyalty cards. The survey also found that people have not warmed to loyalty cards in the last few years with almost three-quarters (73%) saying their attitude to them had not changed. Asda, the UK's number three supermarket chain according to their market share 2002. (www.mintel.co.uk, 10/08/03) is hot on the heels of number two Sainsbury's, and Asda said it will continue to do what it has done since it abandoned its own loyalty card pilot in 1999--chip away at prices. However, with the Nectar scheme Sainsburys has recoginised the need to give shoppers instant gratifiaction in conjuction with have having a m points scheme that builds up. They therefore can offer instant rewards such as savings in real cash, like Ј5.00 of your shpooing bill when you spend over Ј50.00. However, whether this increases loyalty is also questionable as on the writers recent visit to their local Tesco store the check- assistant advised that I could reed all Sainburys vouchers at that store.

Loyalty schemes such as Loyalty cards act as an incentive for repeat purchasing, which will help maintain or increase a supermarket market share. Supermarkets such as Tescos which uses the loyalty card scheme, will save time analysing customer requirements, which will allow them to reduce stock levels and improve cash flow.

"Tesco, uses the data obtained from its Clubcard to target future offers, minimising customer annoyance and maximising their own sales." (Cran,S,2001,p18)

Loyalty depends on personal relationships, and it is not possible to have a 'meaningful relationship' with an electronic check-out or even generally, with the young person at it. The chains have attacked this problem - which they recognise - by various routes. Some, such as Sainsbury's, have produced glossy magazines full of recipes and suggestions of how to enjoy an enviable lifestyle - all from Sainsbury's own shelves. Some chains develop a house style of architecture: 'Tesco tithe-barns' have gables, mansard windows and occasionally clock-towers, while Safeway's larger newer stores have spacious glass atriums; they remain, of course, basic steel-framed sheds underneath. The range of products and services they offer constantly extends. Some are approaching 20,000 'lines' of merchandise. All the larger stores now have cafeterias .Financial services are appearing, where pension schemes, savings plans and loans on mortgage are among the 'products' on offer. In theory, town planning law enables local councils to limit and control what is sold in a supermarket, but in practice this is a broken reed, and herein lies the next and greatest threat to the traditional town centres. When one can obtain banking, professional advice and even medical services along with groceries, clothing and household goods in one visit, under one roof, the reasons for going to the High Street will be few indeed.

Increasing numbers of UK retailers are adopting a new customer profiling technique which is designed to allow them to exploit their large CRM investments in a more effective way. The purchase behaviour profiling (PBP) technique, which is already being used by Sainsburys and Co-op, segments data by transaction rather than simply by customer demographics.This means retailers can analyse customer behaviour without the need for a loyalty card scheme, giving them meaningful insights into buying patterns, said datawarehousing specialist Teradata, which developed PBP.Retailers have made massive investments in loyalty card schemes but they do not use the data properly," said Mikael Bisgaard-Bohr, retail industry director at Teradata. "Segmenting data by demographics is fine for financial services firms, but it does not work for retailers. With PBP you can break down types of customer behaviour into more meaningful segments

This CRM essay has identified and defined the key concepts of CRM and how this is being utilised in the Uk supermarket sector through inplementing new techonlogy and indentifying cutomers needs. Businesses also need to keep their valuable customers. A keen focus on customers is an axiom of good business. Businesses that do not maintain that focus are doomed. The customer can easily be forgotten in the rush to develop and launch new products and services, mitigate competitive threats, appease financial markets, manage the organization, increase profitability, expand market share and globalize. While CRM applications and their associated technology are critical, they are only tools to enable an idea. CRM is a vision, an In this sense, CRM is like Total Quality Management (TQM) you cannot buy it in a box; instead, you must make it happen through a variety of efforts. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that CRM does not become a pure product push or an efficiency play wherein customers bear the brunt of a company's cost-containment measures, CRM must be developed from the outside in-- beginning with target customer's wants and needs. Understanding customer behavior can lead to very simple changes in business processes that can improve customer value. As with many things that are simple in concept, the real challenge of CRM lies in its execution.

Warning!!! This is just a sample CRM essay (CRM essay example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom essay writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom written essays, term papers, research papers, thesis papers and dissertations on Customer Relationship Management topics.

Get professional CRM essay writing help from our professional Ph.D. and Master's academic writers. A+ quality and 100% plagiarism are guaranteed! Feel free to
ORDER A CUSTOM ESSAY ON CRM RIGHT NOW and you won't be disappointed.

HRM Dissertation

Along with the Thatcherite era and an emphasis away from collective bargaining, reduction in bureaucracy and a move from the collective to the individual, a new void in the personnel function required to be filled.

Thus, human resource management, or HRM, emerged as a practiced personnel function, promising flexibility, responsiveness and a marked increase in the value of the employee. Furthermore, with the reduction in heavy industries and increase in services and high technology, HRM promised to put emphasis on the individual and the longer-term strategic issues.

The push towards this seemingly ideological approach to personnel increased in the late eighties, arguably, due to increasing competitive pressures, increased globalisation and a generally harsher business environment. It is these factors that caused managers to want to enhance internal corporate effectiveness and thus improve external competitiveness. This entailed the maximisation of all resources, including the human resource.

However, the failure of personnel management to adequately promote to others the benefits of effectively managing people at work is also cited as a reason for the need for a new approach, a fact stated by Skinner (1981). Legge (1978) however suggested that the failure occurred at an even more fundamental level; personnel management as an activity has failed to develop an appropriate theoretical base, resulting in "piecemeal textbook interventions, usually out of context with the needs of the organisation".

Defining Human Resource Management
There appears to be no single definition of the term human resource management that is accepted by both people management practitioners and the academic community. Furthermore, trade unionists argue that HRM is a slippery concept which means different things to different people (Monks, 1994). With this fact underlined, to attempt to draw a qualitative judgement as to the impact of HRM practices in Britain can only be done with the knowledge that evidence cited may actually be referring to differing concepts and approaches.

Guest (1987) refers to a model of HRM that is characterised by;
"...being people-orientated throughout with an ethic of respect for the individual, maximisation of individual talent, well developed well-integrated policies and practices, genuine consultation and involvement, and clear challenging goals with feedback".

However, it is argued that Guest's model does not identify the key difference between HRM and personnel management, namely a shift from a hands-on, fire fighting approach to a planning function of a company as part of an overall corporate strategy.

Legge (1989) further supports this view, defining HRM as being a central strategic management task; it is the ability of a company to utilise its personnel at all levels to create and sustain a competitive advantage.

The above definition can be compared to a more procedural approach seen in Megginson's (1972) definition of personnel management;

"it is believed that the most significant aspect of personnel management is to be found through the direction and control of human resources of an organisation in its daily operationsЕ the successful performance of the personnel function necessitates that each manager orient himself within his total business environment in order to help achieve the various organisational programs and objectives".

Thus, by comparing HRM with personnel management, we see that HRM is the achievement of a fit between management of the work force and the strategic thrust of the organisation, a notion reinforced by Harris (1984);

"Successful companies guide and shape their company's culture to fit their strategy. One of the tools used to accomplish this shaping is the reinforcing of certain ideas, values and behaviours and discouraging others by means of human resource management activities".

However, this concept of fit has been identified by Legge (1995) as one of several ambiguities and contradictions proliferating in HRM definitions. Does fit refer to the external integration of HRM with business strategy, as identified above, or the internal integration of employment policies?

Regardless of these ambiguities in the HRM definitions, it is clear that whilst personnel management is seen as a short-term solution, reacting to stimuli, HRM is founded on the idea that an organisation includes human resource factors within top-level corporate strategies and hence seeks to adopt a long-term view.

However, empirical evidence as to the extent of HRM implementation tends not to support the idea of top-level corporate human resources strategy integration. This is backed by findings from Storey (1992) from a study of fifteen companies in Britain, where, in the majority of instances, there was a lack of a strong link between people management activities and an overall corporate plan. This fact is given further credence by Legge (1995), who found that there was patchy implementation of practices designed to achieve flexibility and quality, and more emphasis on dealing with short-term issues and opportunities such as high unemployment rates, rather than "any long term strategic considerations".

Given this lack of empirical support on a key distinguishing feature of HRM, doubts must be raised as to the claimed strategic shift from personnel management to HRM.

A Case of "Old wine in new bottles?"
It is highly common to find texts citing HRM as simply being variation on a single theme; that HRM is merely personnel management, under a new label - eloquently stated by Armstrong (1987) as being "Old wine in a new bottle". Miller (1989) concludes that any difference between HRM and personnel management remains confusing and confused. Possibly more insightful is Fowler (1987), who states, "what's new in HRM is not what it is, but who is saying it, HRM represents the discovery of personnel management by chief executives".

The fact, pointed out by Guest (1987), that a number of personnel departments have become "human resource departments" without any observable changes in roles does not help. This is a practice mirrored in some long standing personnel management textbooks, where the title was changed to "human resource management", with little or no change in the actual content.

It is clear that there is no universally accepted description of the concept of HRM, although there are those who clearly have identified variations of HRM. Most notably, is Story (1989), in his identification and classification of two types of HRM, namely "hard" and "soft".

Summed up by Kessler et al (1998), "Hard" HRM puts the stress on the idea of a "resource" that is something to be used dispassionately and in a formally rational manner, as with any other economic factor. "Soft" HRM lays the stress on the term "human", thus conjuring up echoes of the human relations school, and emphasises communication, motivation and leadership.

Further types of HRM have been identified by Keenoy (1990), who makes reference to four variations; traditional - as practiced by the companies mentioned previously, which stresses the importance of people; neo-pluralist - which includes joint consultation, and the use of quality circles and increased employee involvement; strategic human resource management, this being concerned with the integration of human resource issues into corporate plans, and having little or nothing to do with actually managing people, and adversarial pluralism.

Whilst it can be seen that there is a certain amount of overlap between the definitions, there are also clear differences. What is striking, therefore, is that the same term is thus capable of signalling dramatically opposite sets of assumptions. Thus it is up to the individual or an organisation on how they interpret HRM - an echoing of MonkТs statement that HRM is practiced on individual interpretations. Legge (1989) points out that, not only are there differences in the definitions of HRM, they exhibit central characteristics that may ultimately be irreconcilable.

A knock on effect is the difficulty in defining the level to which organisations practice HRM. Noon (1992) states that it is not merely a case of semantics; it does matter which label is attached, as each carries different expectations and important practical implications.

What is clear however is that whichever variation of HRM is implemented by the organisation, its adoption will impact directly on the management of people at work. For some, this means a move away from institutionalisation and collectivism, and also a move away from the traditional view of employee relations management as being concerned with the making and administering of rules which regulate the employment relationship. This can be seen as an ideological shift away from the collective, and towards a unitarist and individualistic standpoint, within which employees' commitment to the company replaces the traditional Western allegiance to the occupation (Wickens, 1987).

Now that the differences between HRM and personnel management have been discussed, and more significantly, variations in HRM identified - despite higher-level ambiguities and confusion, it is appropriate to consider actual empirical evidence as to the extent and nature to which HRM has been implemented in actual organisations.

Qualitative Evidence
Popular management theorists draw a clear link between company success or excellence and the practice of human resource management. Excellent organisations such as IBM, Hewlett-Packard and, at one point, Marks and Spencer are often cited as practicing HRM. However, it must be questioned as to whether it is appropriate for the tag "HRM" to be appointed to an organisation given the lack of a precise definition.

Despite this issue, not withstanding the considerable variations and implementations or HRM practices, there are undoubtedly indications that current management attitudes are consistent with many of the core elements of HRM, such as employee involvement, strategic human resources considerations and a move to devolve the personnel function to the line. Over the years, research has been carried out, looking at organisations that display these characteristics, and much can be learnt from these studies.

Research carried out by Hope-Hailey et al (1997) looking at self-proclaimed HRM practicing organisations, namely Glaxo (pharmaceuticals), Citibank (investment banking), Hewlett-Packard (hi-tech), WH Smith (retail and distribution), Lloyds Bank (retail banking), BT (telecommunications), KJS (fast moving consumer goods) and an NHS Trust (healthcare) revealed several interesting facts.

It was found that in most companies, there was an HR function at the board level of the company, although HRM was seen as a secondary decision making process. Furthermore, it was seen to be more of a process rather than a strategy and emergent rather than intended. A further surprising indicator of this, is the fact that there were very few examples of written HR strategies, reinforcing the idea that;

"HR strategy formulation is much more of an interactive process, based on what is feasible in terms of organisational politics at board level and practical in terms of implementation".

A further emergent fact is that as the HR function has been devolved, in terms of decision making to line managers, the presence of the HR department has diminished. As a personnel manager of Citibank typifies;

"We operate fairly independently within broad parameters and guidelines. We don't behave as a department on a weekly basis "I don't think you could look at us and say we are a department" this puts us very close inside, next to the business".

However, it was found that the move did not reduce in any way the necessary bureaucracy associated with the personnel policies and procedures. Furthermore, the recruitment, selection and the operations of the pay systems were still tasks of a now diminished HR staff. This has led to an observable lack of co-ordination, with a lack of communication between an organisation's business units. The research cites examples of secretaries being released on one floor of a bank due to overstaffing, and secretaries being recruited on another, due to an increase in workload.

Paradoxically, however, this downsizing and devolution of HR departments has been accompanied by an increased regard for the functionТs contribution at a strategic level, despite itТs diminished capability to deal with direct requests for help from staff; HRM is clearly regarded by management to be working, rather than non-management staff.

The researchers state three effects due to this paradox;
- Lower levels of staff often had little understanding of the role and purpose of the function;
- There was a clear identification for the worker's need in a neutral body or department within the organisation that could be consulted for neutral opinion;
- There seemed to be a demand for a counselling service within the organisation.

It is clear from the last two points that having spent decades shedding the image of personnel as the loyal opposition to management (Sisson, 1989), once this has been actualised, there is exactly a demand for these very services. This is contrast to beliefs that with the advent of service based industries and individualisation of the workforce, the welfare mechanisms necessary in factories and heavy industries would become redundant.

This paradox links directly to management practices in relation to trade unions, and the impact HRM has and potentially will have on unionised organisations.

Human Resource Management and Trade Unions
The impact of HRM on trade unions is relative to the environment in which it is being implemented. Traditional British industrial relations, post-Donovan and pre-Thatcherism, has be characterised by pluralism and the institution of collective bargaining, both of which argued as conflicting in nature to HRM practice, which unitarism as itТs core concept, which Guest (1987) sees as marginalising unions.

This process of marginalisation is seen as likely due to the importance placed upon employee commitment and employee involvement within an HRM framework. If an organisation, through the adoption of HRM, stresses the importance of commitment to that organisation, the employee may be put in a position where they will find it necessary to offer allegiance to both the company and the union.

However, it is important to note that HRM is not by definition anti-union, although practices associated with it may well prove to be detrimental to unions in practice. Reinforcing this, Millward (1994) found that HRM practices were actually more likely to be found in unionised companies.

Guest (1989) has suggested that the perspective adopted by management will dictate the impact of HRM on unions. Where the management leans towards a more pluralistic approach then there will be no threat to unions. But where the approach shows accord with the values of hard HRM, namely, individualism and unitarism, then the outcome could be the failure of management to recognise trade unions.

The precise impact on employees generally will depend on the type of HRM that is actually practised, as opposed to simply the adoption of an HRM policy. The TUC (1994) refer to; bad HRM, which they define as the piecemeal, ad hoc, unsystematic attempt to select items from the HRM menu to improve company performance which conceals a vigorous anti-union strategy; and good HRM which is in keeping with companies' attempts to build a workplace by developing employee commitment.

Keenoy (1990) describes HRM as a wolf in sheep's clothing. Furthermore, Fowler (1987) argues that employee involvement under HRM is actually involvement on the company's terms, and is actually a subtle form of employee manipulation disguised as mutuality.

Therefore, it's possible that, whilst it may appear that employees have a greater involvement in the organisation, it is only selective involvement on the company's terms, a situation that may change with the advent of works councils. At the same time, it is feasible that management, in adopting HRM, will no longer see trade unions as being appropriate, as they raise the potential problem for the employee of dual allegiance - union or company? If the union were indeed no longer recognised, then if a situation arose where an individual is placed in a position of conflict with the company, due to this process of individualisation that employee would be in a relatively weak position to oppose the company.

It is clear that there are identifiable components that recur in HRM topics, such as employee involvement, commitment, appraisal and reward. However, these are also tenants of personnel management. The only clear factor that goes some way to differentiate HRM from personnel management is strategic planning. But, does the presence of an element of strategic thinking in people management justify the application of the term human resource management?

Focusing on this view of a long-term strategic view, Skinner (1981) argues that benefits as a result of the implementation of HRM practices may not become apparent for five or more years, and secondly, current corporate polices tend not to reward managers for results that might not become apparent for several years. Hence, whilst it may be argued that HRM has the means of providing increased organisational effectiveness in the long term, will organisations, and managers, be prepared, or even allowed, to wait?

There also appears to be very little qualitative evidence to support any great degree of consistency between people management strategies and corporate strategies within companies. Hope-Hailey et al (1997) indeed suggest that HRM is not being practiced in the forms suggested in the 1980s, and that current practices are actually highly diverse. This diversity in practice suggests that HRM is highly sensitive to environmental and contextual factors as well as higher-level issues such as culture and managerial mentality.

These points lead to the question as to whether human resource management is actually sustainable in the long-term, despite the fact that HRM practices in organisations is on the increase. In order for HRM to be sustainable, several high-level definitions and concepts must be clarified.

Firstly, there is an implication that HRM can be seen as an "all or nothing" concept. This leads to a fundamental question; does an organisation have to actively implement all the practices that fall within HRM in order to claim that they are truly practising HRM? Conversely, can it be said that an organisation practices HRM if the personnel function centres on the practice of any combination of defined constituents of HRM?

Secondly, as Legge (1989) suggests, HRM suffers from three inherent contradictions; individualism versus co-operation, commitment versus flexibility, and strong culture versus adaptability. Clearly unless such internal tensions can be rationalised, they too may threaten the long-term sustainability of HRM.

Finally, the effect on the employee must be considered. In effect, this is directly related to the effects on, and response of, trade unions to HRM. With the move in management to draw direct links to the employee, the potential for trade unions to intervene on behalf of the employee, through the traditional means of collective bargaining, will become increasingly marginalised.

Potentially, with increasing allegiance from the employee being sought by the company, there may come a time when an employee will have to choose between company and union. Furthermore, as company-employee links strengthen, the company may question the very need for trade union recognition, leaving the employees in a potentially undermined position.

Ultimately, though, the question that has to be asked is whether or not HRM is simply context specific; it seems that the observed shifts in management style to HRM is simply a response to the new employment conditions in the 1990s, and the question that begs answering is, if this is the case, how well will HRM fare with the next inevitable change in personnel management methodology?

Warning!!! This is just a sample HRM dissertation (HRM dissertation example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom dissertation writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom dissertations, thesis papers and research proposals on Human Resource Management topics.

Get professional HRM dissertation writing help from our professional Ph.D. and Master's academic writers. Premium quality and 100% plagiarism are guaranteed! Feel free to
ORDER A CUSTOM DISSERTATION ON HRM RIGHT NOW and you won't be disappointed.

Monday, June 29, 2009

Anthropology Essay

If you were to ask someone what Anthropology is, the first thing they might mention is Indiana Jones, digging up bones and artifacts, and at the same time, running away from big boulders in a dark cave. Although these facts are somewhat true, that is not all what Anthropology is about. Anthropology is the study of the human species, in the past, and the present (Park 2002). Through Anthropology, we are able to learn about our pasts and ancestors. Anthropology is basically, “digging up people’s garbage,” (Griffin 2002). But it’s garbage that helps us to further expand our knowledge about the past. One day, thousands, and maybe even millions of years from now there will be people digging up our garbage and learning about us. Anthropology has many different subfields (Griffin 2002).

The main topic that we are going to discuss is Biological Anthropology, also known as Physical Anthropology, which focuses on the study of the human species. The theory of evolution is an important factor that helps scientists, and ourselves, understand what Anthropology is all about. Charles Darwin was the first man to strongly believe in the theory of evolution, which by definition means, a species of living things change over time, and under the right circumstances, this change can produce new species of living organisms (Park 2002). Although he proved that evolution exists, there are still people out there who believe that man was created by God, and that we didn’t evolve from other animals. So to this day, evolution vs. religion becomes a very controversial topic. To better understand the human species, scientists closely study and examine primates because we share derived characteristics which means that two groups share phenotypic features not found in other groups and if it can be supported that those features were derived from a common ancestor, the groups must be lumped from the same category at whatever taxonomic level is appropriate (Park 2002). Each new discovery that Anthropologists make whether it be from bones and artifacts, or from primates, helps us as human beings understand why we are the way we are.

There are four subfields of Anthropology. Cultural Anthropology deals with the way we are raised. It is not in our genes, but rather the society and the area that we live in (Park 2002). If you observe different parts of the country, everyone’s culture is different. For example, Amish people are taught and raised the old fashioned way. They don’t use electricity, they grow their own food, and wear certain types of clothing. They choose not to be exposed to the modern day world, therefore they live how people lived before technology came about. That is part of their culture, and what they’re all about. Even people that live in the same country but in different parts have a very different culture.

New York and California are in the same country, but the people in each state have a different culture all their own. The next field is archaeology which is almost like biological anthropology. Archaeology is the study of the human cultural past and the reconstruction of past cultural systems. It also involves the techniques used to recover, preserve, and interpret the material means of the past (Park 2002). Archaeology is more focused on artifacts created by our ancestors and the way they lived. The last subfield in Anthropology is Linguistic Anthropology. Linguistic Anthropology focuses on languages in the past and their change over time. Other culture’s languages and ways of communication are also studied.

In order to understand what Anthropology is all about we must understand the theory of evolution. Evolution simply means, “change over time,” (Griffin 2002). About two million years ago humanity began to show its evolution in the order of the universe. Humans originally belonged to the order of mammals, the primates, which existed before the dinosaurs became extinct. This development of descending from tree habitats to forest floors and eventually to more open country was associated with the development of many unique features of the human species. However, humans did not evolve from a primate ancestor, humans as well as apes both evolved from the same primate species, but each branched out in different directions tap become different species (McKenna 1998). Darwin was the first man to ever really prove the theory of evolution. He was able to gather enough information and evidence that evolution does exist. Darwin’s findings marked a revolution of thought and social upheaval that not only challenged the scientific community, but the religious ones as well (Walker 2002). Some people do not believe in evolution, due to their religion. Christians believe that man began with Adam and Eve, and that we descended from them. Today there are still arguments if evolution is a fact or theory. By definition, “theory” means a statement of what are held to be the general laws, principles, or causes of something known or observed, as the Oxford English dictionary defines it. Evolution began as a hypothesis and achieved “facthood” as the evidence became so strong that not even the smartest and most knowledgeable person could deny its reality. This theory continues to challenge religious beliefs.

Primatalogy is the study of primates and apes to help us better understand human behavior (Johnson 1997). Of all the animals, primates and apes are closely similar to humans. A primate’s intelligence is closely related to our own. Humans and apes have the same behavioral patterns such as grooming, and interacting in groups. Some of our facial features are also somewhat alike. To better understand the human species, we need to study and understand other forms of life, to see how we are different, and how we are alike. It’s hard to study ourselves, because humans tend to not want to be objective about our own type, so Primatology plays an important role in Anthropology (Park 2002).

Anthropolgy is a crucial subject to be studied. The more educated we are about our past, the wiser our decisions will be for the future. Learning about our ancestors, and the way we live plays an important role for our lives today. Without the study of Anthropology and its different subfields, we would know nothing at all about ourselves.

In the future, the way we live, and everything that we are now will be studied. Some of the most prominent evolutionary theories of all time can be found in Charles Darwin’s “Origin of Species.” His conclusions linked humans’ bone structure to primates, apes, and gorillas. They are closely linked to the evolved human of the time. Within 500,000 years time, he claimed, that we had evolved from Australopithecus Ramidus to the present Homo Sapiens that we are categorized as. He sums the entire evolutionary theory in his book, “We must...acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities, sympathy, benevolence, and god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system itself-with all these exalted powers-Man still bears in his bodily frame the incredible stamp of his lowly origin (Darwin). In my opinion, evolution is both a theory and a fact. Facts and theories are different things. Facts are the world’s data theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts. Facts don’t go away when scientists debate rival theories to explain them. Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: establishing the fact of evolution, and proposing a theory-natural selection-to explain the mechanism of evolution.

Those who do not believe in evolution should consider the fact that maybe God made it possible for living things to evolve. Religious beliefs and evolution come help make what we are today. Due to an abundant amount of evidence, it is hard to dismiss the theory of evolution. Between digging up the past, and studying primates to better understand ourselves, Anthropology becomes an important science.

Sure, doctors and surgeons can cure the diseases of the world, but without extensive knowledge of the human race, then we might as well be blind when we are trying to cure the sick. Our past becomes the key to our future, it’ll prevent us from making mistakes that our ancestors may have made, and it aids us in understanding the very complex human species.

Warning!!! This is just a sample Anthropology essay (Anthropology essay example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom essay writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom written essays, term papers, research papers, thesis papers and dissertations on Anthropology topics.

Get professional Civil War essay writing help from our professional Ph.D. and Master's academic writers. A+ quality and 100% plagiarism are guaranteed! Feel free to

Euthanasia Research Paper

Euthanasia is one of society's most widely and fiercely debated moral issues. No one is able to determine the significance of one’s life and the quality a person should live. Euthanasia is categorized into two separate definitions; active and passive euthanasia. Euthanasia gives the terminally ill the ability to orchestrate their death. Euthanasia lifts a burden from the sufferer as well as their caretakers. Euthanasia gives the terminally ill the final dignifying say which allows them to practice the ultimate freedom; the right to die.

Euthanasia is split into two different categories; active and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia, which by definition, is; "Doing something, such as administering a lethal drug, or using other means that cause a person's death” (MacKinnon, 126) is more detestable than passive euthanasia, which is defined as; "Stopping (or not starting) some treatment, which allows a person to die, the person's condition causes his or her death," (MacKinnon, 126). Active euthanasia is typically the more highly debated of the two acts of euthanasia and is better known because of the actions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian, who has aided in many successful suicides. Passive euthanasia, on the other hand, is rarely debated and usually never enters controversial dialogue because it is typically looked at as letting someone die naturally. In passive euthanasia one simply refuses treatment with the knowledge that death is imminent. This offers little debate for several reasons, primarily because it is seen as a natural way of dying. There are exceptions, for example, some religions refuse to accept life preserving treatments with the knowledge that without the treatment they will die. For example in the faith of the Jehovah's Witness, a child, who has been in a serious car accident and is in need of blood, will die rather that accept treatment (Humphry, 104). Although this kind of passive euthanasia would endure much scrutiny, it would be accepted because it is tied to religious convictions. In either case, active or passive, the victim will die due to the aid of a physician or another able bodied individual. There is essentially no difference between the two types of euthanasia; both aid the terminally ill in taking their own life. From herein, both active and passive euthanasia will be referred to as euthanasia. Essentially euthanasia aids people in ending their lives, and gives those who are terminally ill, the last and perhaps only decisive measure during their illness.

Supporters of the practice of euthanasia argue that helping the terminally ill to bring about their own deaths and allowing them to determine the how and when they die, defends their basic human right to decide whether they should live in suffering, or die in peace. Euthanasia is not only humane, but also allows the person the ability to maintain their dignity by planning their own end, thus letting them die with dignity and at peace. Freedom to choose how one lives their life is not taken away due to a terminal illness, thus this freedom should be carried out regardless of whether the issue is death or our freedom of speech. Supporters of euthanasia state that, "[They] believe that everyone has the right to choose how they live and die" (The Voluntary Euthanasia Society [TVES]). Euthanasia allows the person, who is principally awaiting their death, to maintain a fraction of their dignity by coordinating their own death. Thus letting the person die in peace, rather than suffering through their illness until their eventual demise. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society states that, "Each person has value and is worthy of respect, has basic rights and freedoms and the power to control his or her destiny. [The proponents] campaign to legalize assisted dying within certain strictly defined circumstances is fundamentally about choice" (TVES). The choice being discussed is their right to a person’s freedom to choose whether or not to live in pain and suffering or die in peace.

The worth of a humans life does not change because they are terminally ill, but the manner in which one lives there life changes significantly. In some cases, victims of terminal diseases suffer great humiliation due to loss of control over their muscles and other parts of their body, making them completely dependant upon someone else. These hardships are often times degrading to the sufferer and costly to both the victim and their loved ones, which puts strain not only on the person affected by the disease but also those who are taking care of them.

In many cases, euthanasia is the victims’ way to pay back their debt to their family, and their last effort at dignity. Suffering from a terminal illness is costly and time consuming for those who take care of the victim. Victims in the advanced stages of some terminal illness will have limited muscle control and experience excruciating and unrelenting pain. Rather than suffer through an illness, one should have the right to end the pain and plan their death. As the Euthanasia Society states, "Not everyone dies well. At least 5% of terminal pain cannot be fully controlled, even with the best care. Other distressing symptoms such as sickness, incontinence or breathlessness cannot always be relieved" (Dr. Jack Kevorkian). Not only does the sufferer endure the hardships of their disease, but often times their loved ones also bear the brunt of the monetary costs related to their illness.

The costs of at-home treatments as well as hospital, medicine and treatment costs are an extreme burden upon the victim’s family. In the victims eyes, their death signifies eliminating their own, as well as their next of Kin’s, perception of them dying to be a burden, physically and financially, and then can focus on the positive aspect of their death; the end to their suffering. Derek Humphry states that “patients with a high wish to hasten death have greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceive themselves to be more of a burden to others” (Humphry, 127.) Patients suffering from illness simply want to lessen the weight and dependence upon their loved ones, and exercise their freedom to decide when and how they want to die.

No one is capable of determining the worth of someone’s life; however those who suffer terminal illnesses should have the freedom of determining whether the pain they are forced to endure is worth continuing their lives. Euthanasia is categorized into separate definitions, both of which are scrutinized and both allowing the freedom of choice. Through euthanasia, the choice of how and when the victim of a terminal illness should die lies in the hands of the person themselves. The victim views their final demise as a way for them to repay those who took care of them or the final lift of burden from their loved ones. Euthanasia allows the practice of basic human rights and gives the terminally ill the right to die.

Warning!!! This is just a sample Euthanasia research paper (Euthanasia research paper example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom research paper writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom written essays, term papers, research papers, thesis papers and dissertations on Medicine topics.

Get professional
Euthanasia research paper writing help from our professional Ph.D. and Master's academic writers. A+ quality and 100% plagiarism are guaranteed! Feel free to ORDER A CUSTOM RESEARCH PAPER ON EUTHANASIA RIGHT NOW and you won't be disappointed.

Symbolism Essay

Lord of the Flies is a complex novel which can be seen as an allegory: a piece of writing in which the apparent meaning of the characters and events is used to symbolize a deeper meaning- moral, spiritual, political or social. Golding uses symbolism throughout his novel to emphasize the fact that mankind possesses two different personalities, one civilized and the other savage. Golding uses these objects and characters to form the theme of his novel and to convey different aspects of society to his readers.

In the beginning of the novel, the conch shell found by Ralph and Piggy represented order, civilization, and free speech. Piggy instructed Ralph to blow the conch shell “We can use this to call the others” (Golding 16). After calling the others, they all meet and decide to vote for a chief. “Let’s have a vote” (22). It is here that the conch symbolizes order and democracy. The
boys saw Ralph as a figure of authority and leadership based solely on the conch shell. “Let him
be chief with the trumpet thing” (24). Ralph used the conch as a means of communicating with the others. If someone had something to say, he would hand the conch to them. “ ‘I’ll give the conch to the next person to speak.’ ‘He can hold it when he’s speaking.’ ‘And he won’t be interrupted’ ”(36).

Piggy and his glasses also symbolized civilization and technology. He was Ralph’s adviser, was always thinking logically, and helped Ralph make smart decisions. It was Piggy who found the conch and suggested to Ralph to blow it to call the others. His glasses, used as a magnifying glass, played an important role in starting the signal fire. This fire was to be kept burning in hopes that ships would see it and rescue them. It was the fire of hope. When the fire went out, the importance of his glasses was expressed by Ralph who shouted “if the fire is out, we’ll need them” (73).

The signal fire was another form of symbolism. It was the fire which would hopefully aid in the rescue of the boys and take them back to their homes. It was the responsibility of Jack’s hunters to keep the fire going, but they became less and less interested. They placed more emphasis on hunting. They began to disobey Ralph’s orders. The importance of the fire was expressed by Ralph in saying “You let the fire go out” (69). Jack’s response was “we had to have them in the hunt” (76). This was the first time in which Ralph’s leadership was tested and the beginning of his decline. He was losing his influence among the others.

Jack, who becomes the main adversary of Ralph, was a symbol of dictatorship and savagery. He was arrogant and self-righteous. He became offended by not being elected as chief and continually challenged Ralph. “I ought to be chief...because I’m chapter chorister and head boy” (22). The relationship of Ralph and Jack deteriorated throughout the book, representing the deterioration of a democratic society into a savage one. It was when Jack separated from the others that his followers began to paint their faces and become savages. Golding states, “This was a savage whose image refused to blend with that ancient picture of a boy in shorts and shirt”(192). These painted faces helped them justify their actions. This is best illustrated with the murder of Simon.

Golding names the pig’s head that Jack puts on a stick as a sacrifice for the beast, “Lord of the Flies” (138). This becomes a symbol of savagery and the driving force of Jack’s tribe. As the novel progresses, the sequence of killing tracks the children from being innocent to that of being savage. Simon dies in a violent act committed by a group of Jack’s tribe (152-153) and Piggy is killed by Roger deliberately (180-181).

Throughout his novel, Lord of the Flies, Golding utilized objects and characters to illustrate his main theme that without rules and laws, any society will degenerate into a savage one. He stresses the importance of the characters and how they respond to the different situations in the novel. It shows the struggle between civilization and the urge to become primitive. In the beginning, Ralph, the conch, Piggy’s glasses, and the signal fire were all signs of democracy. As Jack became more powerful, the conch was eventually smashed and the signal fire went out. The objects such as the pig’s head, painted faces, and finally the destructive fire all representing savagery and anarchy became increasingly more important. At the end of the novel, Golding sums up his feelings toward people. He believes that evil is in each of us and that society with its rules and laws holds everyone together, preventing evil from being exposed.

Also paramount to Golding’s symbolism is the two basic conceptions of power which slowly emerged on the island. Simon, Ralph, and Piggy believed that power should be used for the good of all on the island. A democratic group, each having the same rights as the other. Roger and Jack believed that those who hold it should use it to gratify their own desires and act on impulses. A group associated with savagery.

Through symbolism, Golding did an excellent job in expressing his views about man and society. At first, the book was an adventure, but through the use of symbolism , it became more of a in-depth writing on how people react when being removed from their environment.

Warning!!! This is just a sample Symbolism essay (Symbolism essay example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom essay writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom written essays, term papers, research papers, thesis papers and dissertations on Symbolism topics.

Get professional Symbolism essay writing help from our professional Ph.D. and Master's academic writers. A+ quality and 100% plagiarism are guaranteed! Feel free to
ORDER A CUSTOM ESSAY ON SYMBOLISM RIGHT NOW and you won't be disappointed.

Friday, June 26, 2009

Abortion Term Paper

Social problems represent the tension between individual freedom and collective interests. It is hard to encourage people to act against abortion when no one knows how large the problem is. A social problem is created when private troubles, such as an individual’s behavior, become public concerns. In the past abortion was a private concern. But feminists and other interest groups began to view abortion as an issue involving women’s rights, prompting them to campaign for its legalization. In turn, this led to a growing controversy over abortion laws which eventually turned into a public concern where it remains today. American citizens face many social problems; abortion has clearly become one of them. Although, the decision to have an abortion is a private matter, the collective interest of the public brings the morality of an individual choice into question.

Whether abortion is a right or wrong is a very delicate moral question that draws different responses. The most important legal decision on abortion is the Supreme Court case of Roe vs. Wade, which legalized abortions in the United States. Even after the legalization of abortion by the Supreme Court, however, the matter continued to remain a private issue. As more people spoke out against abortion, tension was created and a woman’s right to choose to have an abortion became another hotly debated public issue. The public began to scrutinize the Supreme Court’s decision and another example of the law’s inability to satisfy a population with a wide spectrum of ideas surfaced. The growing tensions in society spread to organizations and establishments such as the Roman Catholic Church. Here women felt they were considered criminals because they aborted their pregnancies. The church began to relate unwanted pregnancies with irresponsible and “sex hungry” women, and public opinion formed a negative image of women who had chosen abortion. This negative image soon created a social problem because women not only had to deal with the reality of their unwanted pregnancies but they also had to face vehement pro-life adversaries. Along with the personal humiliation involved in an abortion, women were branded as murders or killers by anti-abortion groups. Cicero once said, “To convince others, we have to be familiar not only with our views but with theirs.” The rhetorician makes us realize the perspectives of women on the issue of abortion but also challenges the debate’s key to consider the personal and public motivation of their adversaries.

Public policies on abortion cause the private aspect of the problem to be dealt with in a public forum. Soon more problems stemmed from the debate as other important policies, such as those concerning the environment and economy, were neglected and set aside to cater to the formation of an abortion policy that would be widely accepted. For example, money funded by the government was used to facilitate abortion research and other contraceptives superceded the attention intended for the health care and social security. The public concern grew for Americans who would rather have funding for medical insurance and welfare for themselves instead of funding research to help calm the abortion storm. The government was indeed willing to dispense tax money for abortion research and disregard other important issues. The morality of the issue was beginning to being questioned as the government decides whether to continue funding abortion research or to provide the Medicare for its senior citizens. The personal consequences of these actions and their implications for one’s quality of life are main reasons for a divided society and the development of a social problem. A new CNN/USA Today/Gallup survey found 38 percent of Americans believe abortion should be legal in most or all circumstances, 42 percent believe it should be available in a few circumstances, such as to save the mother's life and 18 percent say abortion should never be legal. This is almost unchanged in the past 15 years. These percentages reflect the different opinions of society and we can see the fragmentation caused by one issue. The issue of abortion is also related to stark differences of opinion about privacy, a growing public concern in an age of surveillance and widespread, international dispersal of information. Even in a modern world, though, it is still difficult to differentiate what is moral and amoral and what is permissible in society.

The legal implications of abortion are more tangible than their moral counterparts, and they rise to the foreground of the controversy of abortion practices in the United States. Politics still play a major role in shaping the debate over abortion, but much of that debate has become predictable.
David Garrow, an Emory University law professor claims,
“Much of the controversy about abortion is really stimulated by the interest groups on both sides of the political question, rather than by ordinary Americans, The American people and many political leaders have already made up their minds about legal abortion.”

The last decade has highlighted the conflict of interest inherent to the issue of abortion. The tension can be linked to different agendas of the numerous political parties. The present anti-abortion administration sets a new mind set for its people to follow. Another possible issue that can be raised here is that of ethics, simply as to who is right and wrong. And if society forces women to have children against their will, then should society have the obligation to care for food, provide clothing, and educate these innocent children and make them normal but not necessarily productive members of society. The Democratic government of the previous administration supported the pro-choice advocates of the abortion: “Clinton supports The Freedom of Choice Act, guaranteeing abortion rights to women, regardless of the Supreme Court's possible reconsideration of Roe vs. Wade, and overriding existing state regulations and provisions.” But the present administrations stance on pro-life leaves the citizens of America confused due to the constant see saw battle for women’s rights amongst the different administrations in the last ten years.

The prior confusion does not, however; reflect the ethical issue of abortion. The ethical issue of abortion reflects the thoughts of a free society where the people, not the government, make private choices. A main reason behind the tension created is attributed to the fact that advocates of the anti abortion movement cannot argue with the Supreme Court decision of legalizing abortion. An anti abortionist view of legalization is explained by Genevieve Wood of the Family Research Council who claims, "There are a lot of measures that stand a very good chance of passage and the American public would be supportive of many of them." This view is shared by anti-abortionists who are still trying to reverse the Supreme Court decision of 30 years ago. The American people still do not want the matter to rest and be settled with. They are adamant about their individual views. These conflicting views create social problems. If the decision to abort a child is a personal one, why should there be public consent for this decision? Such an action will only affect the lives of a few individuals, who are willing to take the risks involved in the abortion. If somebody wants to do something rational to their thought process, why should the public have an opinion on this matter? In a phone call broadcast to anti-abortion protesters gathered on the National Mall, President Bush vowed "to protect the lives of innocent children waiting to be born" and would promote "compassionate alternatives" to abortion. The message relayed by the present administration is not based upon on the ethics of the issue but upon the responsibilities of the government and public in making a decision on behalf of its female constituents However, the present administration uses their political authority to influence private citizens to adapt to a new anti-abortion paradigm present in today’s society. But abortion’s opponents seem willing to pass the massive tax increases and social programs to deal with raising the child who would otherwise have been aborted.

One potential alternative of pro-life advocates is adoption. Many people would like to adopt a child but have to face the adversity of the child not being genetically theirs. Here ethical issues arise about the societal responsibilities of raising a child given up for adoption, if a woman decides to let the child live but eventually gives it up for adoption the burden of the child will once again fall on society. The foster and abortion homes now have an additional burden on them; to bear the mistakes of women. In my opinion the gift of life and parenthood is given to us by the Lord; we shouldn’t just give that gift and responsibility away because we are not capable of handling the pressure Abortion generates the concept of individual freedom versus group responsibility to a group, so tension develops between the individual responsibilities of conception and the public responsibilities of supporting a new child.

At present the abortion rate is at its lowest since 1974, yet pro-abortion groups still lobby for the reversal of Roe vs. Wade. Not only are the abortion rates decreasing but also there has been an 11% decline of abortion providers since 1996. The tension caused despite the steady decline of abortion rates leaves the future of this problem extremely unpredictable and seemingly endless, largely due to its moral implications. The question now arises as to why the pro-abortion groups still want the court decision to be overturned. The only possible reason that can be formulated is that they want to achieve a moral victory and do not want to face the adversity of being defeated again. However, this moral defeat can once again lead to tension, because abortion is an extremely disputed issue that has evolved from a private matter into a public concern. These concerns reflect the collective interests of the public who deal with abortion as one of the many social problems eminent in America today.

This is just a sample Abortion term paper (Abortion term paper example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom term paper writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom written essays, term papers, research papers, thesis papers and dissertations on Abortion topics.

Get professional Abortion term paper writing help from our professional Ph.D. and Master's academic writers. A+ quality and 100% plagiarism are guaranteed! Feel free to
ORDER A CUSTOM TERM PAPER ON ABORTION RIGHT NOW and you won't be disappointed.

Management Dissertation

One of the most important parts of the business world is management. We all hope to obtain upper managerial position when we get older, but first we need to learn the skills and principles to become a manager. Managers in today’s world walk a very fine line in everything they do, because the trust of the company lies in their hands. The jobs of a manager are not very easy. A major issue, which will be discussed later on, is that managers should also become good leaders. It is one thing to manage a company, but another to lead the company into bigger and better things.

Directors have an obligation to shareholders and the CEO to evaluate the performance of the chief executive officer. The CEO is the employee of the board and has a clear picture of expectations and goals that he must achieve. Ideally, the CEO’s performance in both management and financial matters should be evaluated each year, and should be discussed with the CEO by the board or a spokesperson who is a director. In evaluating the CEO, directors are reminded to be as objective as possible. Avoid focusing on personality or style issues and look instead to substantive matters. The board of directors should evaluate the CEO by making sure he is completing all of his tasks and keeping the company moving forward. The CEO should be in complete control of the company and make sure everything is in perfect condition and running by procedure. The board should make sure this is taking place within the company. (Runkle)(Freibert)

Men and women who serve on the board of directors should all have the certification needed to be that high up in the company. Those people should be very well educated with a very high degree. They should have all the necessary training, so they would know exactly what was taking place in the company. They should be someone that has been with the company that knows all the goals and objectives the organization is trying to reach. To be a part of the board of directors is a very honorable position in a company. Other than the CEO, the board of directors are the most important part of the company, and will lead the company in achieving the necessary tasks and moving the company forward. The board also decides if they feel the CEO is doing his job properly and to his or her best standards. They will replace the CEO if he or she is not helping the company. This makes it very important that the board members take their job very seriously. Only those who are very well educated and have the necessary training be a part of the board of directors because the company lies in their hands. (Board of Directors)

The members of the board of directors should be very aware of the day to day activities. They all should know what tasks need to be achieved each day. I interviewed one of my managers Chad Sawyer, who is the assistant store manager of Hannaford’s. He said, “Every board of directors should meet on a regular basis discussing the issues taking place in the company, which will allow everyone in the company to be on the same page of what problems need to be addressed in the company.” I felt that this was a very significant point. The more the board members speak to each other, the more they will realize what is going on around them throughout the company. The board should be united, so they are all together in operating the company under the CEO. They must help the company move forward with the CEO and take care of all the problems they encounter. (Pointer)

The board of directors take many steps in deciding whether they are going to replace a CEO or not. Some of the reasons why they would replace a CEO would be if he or she was not completing his task and objectives, was not pushing the company forward, and not achieving the success that the company wants too. The board of directors want a CEO that will help the company reach success and better the organization. They want their stocks to rise and for shareholders to love the company. The company is in the hands of the CEO, and it is a lot of hard work to stay a CEO for a long time. Many CEO’s do not last very long because it is very hard to keep a company always on top and making a huge profit. The board will replace CEO’s whenever he or she is not producing up to the standards of the company. (Do Boards ever fire executive directors)

A Manager must look at the big picture and see the company as a whole, because their decisions make the company strong and running properly. “Management is the act, manner, or practice of managing through handling, supervision, or control” (Dictionary.com). There are four main elements of the strategic management process. These areas are used to help accomplish organizational goals, through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling people and other organizational resources. Planning focuses on anticipating trends and determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational goals and objectives. A major issue in planning is to please the customers. Managers should always want a very high satisfaction for customers because you want them to come back.

Through planning, he or she should set organizational goals and try to achieve them as best as possible. They should come up with tactics and a line of attack to reach those goals. Also, you should determine the resources necessary and set standards. Planning is the most important element of the strategic management process because without a good plan you will not be able to do anything. The better prepared the person is the more successful your company will be. The Second element you should focus on is organizing. Organizing includes designing the structure of the organization and creating conditions and systems in which everyone and everything work together to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives. Again, you want to organize and design your company around the customer. You want your employees to please the customers at a profit. Through organizing you want to accomplish your goals by assigning tasks and establishing procedures to reach your objectives. There should also be an organization chart showing the lines of authority throughout the company.

Employees should be recruited and hired and then trained and developed so they understand the rules and regulations of the company. Managers want to have the best employees possible so your company will meet those objectives. Employees need to be place where they best fit into the company and where they will be most effective. The third element is leading. Leading means creating a vision for the business and guiding, training, coaching, and motivating others to work effectively to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives. You do not want to control your employees; you want them to be self motivated and get the work they are supposed to done on their own. This will lead to them becoming more independent and achieve for goals. To lead his or her employees one must give them assignments, clarify policies, explain routines, and also tell them how they are doing in their performance. Lastly, controlling involves determining whether or not an organization is progressing towards its goals and objectives, and taking the necessary actions to do so. You should monitor employees work and award them for outstanding work on achieving their goals. This is the strategic management process and this is where the center and main part of an organization is made up of. (Nickels)

There are many requirements you need to have to be a manager in the 21st century. The most important competencies that are needed to be an effective manager are leadership, relating with employees, listening skills, time management, ethical issues, and rewarding employees. All of these competencies are in the beginning stages of evolving into new management skills. Managers certainly need to start preparing for the 21st century; leadership for managers will create a more demanding role than it has in the past. A manger is no longer expected to oversee his or her staff. He or she is expected to handle a multitude of tasks at any given moment. Managers will not be considered as bosses anymore. Managers will guide, train, support, motivate, and coach employees rather than to tell them what to do. Managers in the future are more likely to be working in teams, to be evaluated by those below them as well as the people above them. Mangers will demand a new kind of person, being a skilled communicator, team player, a planner, coordinator, organizer, and supervisor. You will need to be more a leader within your company and complete the many tasks and objectives that your company has. It will be very difficult to be a successful leader without manager-employee interaction, so therefore you should have very good social skills. Many of the changes in the 21st century will be rewarding and beneficial to corporations. (Stock)

When there is an organizational change among a company there is always some stress and conflict among employees. This shift in a company should be followed by an establishment of an organizational culture that will smooth the process of the change. An Organizational culture is widely spread values within an organization that provide coherence and cooperation to achieve common goals. The very best organizations have cultures that stress customer service to others. You want your business to have friendly, concerned and caring employees that will provide a very good product at a reasonable price. These elements make up a high performing culture. Managers and CEO’s should all have the same goal of customer satisfaction. By providing these high performing cultures, it leads the way to self-managed teams so more objectives will be achieved. You want customers to enjoy shopping at your business and receiving the service they need. This builds character upon your organization where people know they are getting something worth buying. (Nickels)

There are many different things you see as a first-line supervisor compared to a middle manager. When managers have planned out their course of action, they must organize the company to accomplish their goals and objectives. To do to this manager’s use an organization chart. An organization chart is a visual device which shows the relationship and divides the organization’s work, which shows who is accountable for the completion of specific work and who reports to whom. (Nickels)

There are three levels of management. First are the top management, then middle management, and lastly supervisory management. Top management consists of the president and other key company executives who develop strategic plans. Middle management includes general managers, division managers, and branch and plant managers who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling. Supervisory management includes those who are directly responsible for supervising workers and evaluating their daily performance. Middle managers are better educated and trained compared to a first-line supervisor. They are also higher in hierarchy compared to the first-line supervisors, so they have more responsibility within the company and how to succeed in the business. (Nickels)

There are some problems in both a centralized structure and in a decentralized structure. “Centralized authority is an organization structure in which decision making authority is maintained at the top level of management at the company’s headquarters” (Nickels). “Decentralized authority is an organization structure in which decision making authority is delegated to lower level managers more familiar with local conditions than headquarters management could be” (Nickels). The degree to which an organization allows managers at lower levels to make decisions determines the degree of decentralization. Today’s markets tend to favor more of a decentralized structure. In a decentralized structure companies will buy the products that more appeal to their customers compared to a centralized structure where the products are the same all over the world. There are problems because people in the United States would eat different food and wear different clothing compared to the people living in Europe. Companies need to decentralize to fit the customers’ needs, so they buy and sell different products geared towards different customer bases. (Nickels)

There are many different ways to structure an organization. The four main models are line organizations, line-and-staff organizations, matrix style organizations, and cross-functional self-managed teams. In a line-and-staff organization, a line personnel “performs functions that contribute directly to the primary goals of the organization”, while the staff personnel “perform functions that advise and assist line personnel in performing their goals” (Nickels). A line-staff structure is very helpful when dealing with safety, quality control, computer technology, human resource management, and investing. A staff personnel is very supportive toward the line personnel. It is a way to get objective and goals reached by cooperating with one another. (Nickels)

A matrix style organizational structure is similar to a line-staff structure, but different in a couple of ways. A matrix style structure “is an organization in which specialists from different parts of the organization are brought together to work on specific projects but still remain part of a line-and-staff structure” (Nickels). In a matrix style structure managers are allowed to use employees in different departments to design and market new products. (Nickels)

There are some advantages and disadvantages of this matrix style structure. Some of the advantages are that it gives flexibility to managers in assigning people to projects. It encourages inter-organizational cooperation and teamwork. It can result in creative solutions to problems such as those associated with new-product development. Lastly, it provides for more effective use of organizational resources. Some disadvantages are that it is costly and effective. It can cause confusion among employees as to where their loyalty belongs. It requires good interpersonal skills and cooperative employees and managers. It can be only a temporary solution to a long-term problem. A matrix style organization structure works very well in some businesses, but very bad in others. (Nickels)

If your goal is a superior, high performance, workforce that is focused on continuous improvement, you need to manage people within a performance management and development framework. When you implement each of these components, you’ll ensure the development of the superior workforce you seek. There were seven success opportunity areas that you should focus your time and attention too; These areas will give your organization the performance of a superior workforce, and that is the performance that will enable your organization to achieve its goals. First, create a documented, systematic hiring process to ensure you hire the best possible staff. Develop a job description that clearly describes the performance responsibilities of the person you hire. Set up as many interviews as possible, asking them questions of what they would do in certain situations. Perform a background check of each person, so you hire the best possible people, with the education necessary for the job. Second, provide the direction and management needed to align employee interest with your organization’s goals and desired outcomes. Provide effective supervisors who give clear direction and expectations to staff success. Provide the companies vision, mission, values, and goals to show what the company hopes for. Third, have quarterly performance meetings to establish aligned direction, measurement, and goals. Performance and productivity goals and measurements that support your organization’s goals are developed and written. Track the goals of the company to see which ones are being achieved. Fourth, provide regular feedback. Effective supervisory feedback means that people know how they are doing on a daily basis. Develop a reward and recognition system that tells people clearly what you want from them. It must also help people feel appreciated and recognized for their efforts. Develop a disciplinary system to help people improve areas in which they are not performing as expected. Fifth, provide a recognition system that rewards and recognizes people for real contributions. Develop a bonus system that recognizes employee’s accomplishments and contributions. Design ways to say “thank you” and other employee recognition processes. Try to provide a continual improving benefits package. Sixth, provide training, education and development to build a superior workforce. Employee retention and education begin with a positive employee orientation. The orientation should give the employee a complete understanding of the flow of the business, the nature of the work, benefits and the fit of his or her job within the organization. Each employee should receive enough training so they can do their job to the best of their ability. You should receive around 40 hours of training before they begin to work on their own. Finally the seventh is end the employment relationship if the staff person is not working out. View every termination as an opportunity for your organization to analyze its hiring, training, support, and coaching practices and policies. This will give you a better understanding of who you want to hire and who will best fit the position need. (Allaire)

There is a major difference between leading a company and managing a company. A person can be a good manager and not be a good leader. Both a leader and a manger have very different qualities. Leaders are the heart of a business. The essence of leadership means inspiring a group to come together for a common goal. Leaders motivate, console and work with people to keep them bonded and eager to move forward. Managers are the brains of the business. They establish systems, create rules, and operating procedures, and put into place incentive programs. Most business executives have a mix of both management and leadership skills. Both skill sets are necessary to run a successful business. Leadership skills provide the direction, while management skills provide the systems that let a company grow with success. Leaders set direction with a vision, mission, and operating principles that embody the company’s direction and values. Managers cope with complexity, while leaders cope with change. Managing is a present tense activity and leading is a future-tense activity. Leaders create expectations, while managers perform them. Management is doing things right where as leading is doing the right thing. Managers emphasize rational and control, and are also problem solvers. Leaders are perceived as brilliant and achieve control of themselves before they try to control others. They visualize a purpose and generate value in work. Managers and leaders have many different attitudes towards goals. Managers adopt impersonal, almost passive attitudes towards goals and decide upon goals based on necessity instead of desire and are therefore deeply tied to their organization’s culture. Leaders tend to be active since they envision and promote their ideas instead of reacting to current situations. They shape their ideas instead of responding to them and have a personal orientation toward goals. (Nickels)

Both managers and leaders have different conceptions of work. Managers view work as an enabling process. They establish strategies and make decisions by combining people and ideas. They are good at reaching compromises and mediating conflicts between opposing values and perspectives. Leaders develop new approaches to long-standing problems and open issues to new options. They first use their vision to excite people and only then develop choices which give those images substance. They focus people on shared ideals and raise their expectations. (Cropp)

Managers and leaders also have very different relationship with others. Managers prefer working with others. They maintain a low level of emotional involvement in relationships. They attempt to reconcile differences, seek compromises, and establish a balance of power. Managers relate to people according to the role they play in a sequence of events or in a decision-making process. Leaders maintain inner perceptiveness that they can use in their relationships with others. They relate to people in an intuitive way. They focus on what events and decisions mean to participants. They attract strong feelings of identity and difference or of love or hate. There are many differences between managers and leaders. For a company to have a lot of success you would definitely need to have both of them. (Cropp)

Management skills are transferable from one industry to the next. When you are studying management and leadership it prepares you to work in any organization at any level of management. A manager must have three major skills. These skills are technical skills, human relationship skills, and conceptual skills. Technical skills involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department. Human relationship skills involve communication and motivation which enable managers to work through and with people. Conceptual skills involve the ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts. There are many different types of management positions, and even many more different companies to choose from. You will have to find a management position that best fits you. You will have all the skills needed to be any type of manager. (Nickels)

There are many important elements in using organizing principles within an organization. In our textbook, it discusses how Max Weber and Henri Fayol were the first two men to discuss organization theory. Both Foyal and Weber’s theory were similar, but each of them had different theories. Foyal’s principles of organization consisted of 10 elements. The ten principles were unity of command, hierarchy of authority, division of labor, subordination of individual interests to the general interests, authority, degree of centralization, clear communication channels, order, equity, and spirit de corps. These principles were used for years and these were the basis of what organizations were built upon. Max Weber stressed a couple of other elements in his theory. Weber highlights job descriptions, written rules, decision guidelines, and detailed records. He also emphasizes staffing and promotions based on qualifications, consistent procedures, regulations, and policies. Weber believed that larger organizations needed rules, regulations and guidelines to follow to be successful. (Nickels)

An inverted structure design is suitable for all organizations today if and only if it is done right. An inverted organization has contact people at the top and the chief executive officer at the bottom of the organization chart. It is the complete opposite of a traditional chart. The front-line employees have to be very well educated because there is more stress and reliance on them to better the company. They also must better train the front-line. It takes a lot of trust from the managers to execute an inverted structure design. If a company performs correctly, it will definitely help the company. It completely helps out customer satisfaction and also profits as well. This structure gives everyone power and not just the managers. It helps the company so everyone can become a leader and make the company the best it can be. (Nickels)

Unions are good for business. Workers who belong to unions earn high wages, work fewer hours, receive more training and also have longer job tenure. People join unions because it improves their standard of living and adds to their quality of life. There are many advantages people have when the come together in solidarity. Workers can receive better pay and working conditions, improved access to benefits like pension and dental insurance, and opportunities to become better workers and better citizens. Unions provide many good jobs for people with many benefits. I believe that unions are very good for business and it is a way for many people to work together to get a lot of goals and objectives finished. (Nickels)

There are many Union tactics which are used against management. A labor union is defined in the dictionary as, “an organization of wage earners formed for the purpose of serving the members' interests with respect to wages and working conditions” (Dictionary.com). Today there are about 16 million workers in the U.S. that belong to a labor union. Labor unions have been around for a long time. The way unions negotiate for an employment contract is by collective bargaining. “Collective bargaining is negotiation between the representatives of organized workers and their employer or employers to determine wages, hours, rules, and working conditions” (Dictionary.com). When in collective bargaining, the unions represent its members in negotiations rather than have each worker negotiate individually with an employer. In order for the collective bargaining process can start a union shop must be organized. Although many union contracts are worked out through collective bargaining, there are times when this process fails to bring agreement between the union and management. (Nickels)

In looking to achieve the union’s goals, labor unions may use a variety of tactics. Some of these tactics include striking, picketing, boycotting, slowdown, and in some cases illegal methods. A strike is the most effective union tactic against management. A strike “is when workers stop working for the purpose of gaining concessions from management” (Nickels). The purpose of this is to further workers’ objectives after an impasse in collective bargaining. Strike is labor’s most powerful weapon because of the financial loss imposed upon the employer. The downfall to a strike is that it also costs participating workers a loss in income. There are three main tactics. The first one is secondary boycott, which has been discussed previously. The second is strong-arm methods where unions hire thugs to force management into accepting the union demands. The third method is called jurisdictional strike is one caused by dispute between two unions over which one can represent certain workers. Management sometime will put pressure on unions when there is a breakdown in labor-management negotiations. Some important management tactics are lockouts, injunctions, and strikebreakers. Lockout happens when management shuts down a workplace in hope of bringing the workers to the companies’ terms. Sometimes a court will issue an injunction to halt a strike. Injunctions are very uncommon. Strikebreakers occur when management hire new people to replace the people that are on strike. Strike breaking, in my opinion is the best way to handle a strike. If people don’t want to work they shouldn’t. There are peaceful ways decisions can be solved without strikes or lockouts. (Gerson)
Companies should drug test every employee that they hire. They should do a background search of all their new hires to see their training, education, and if they have committed a crime. Every employee, even ones that have been there for a very long time should continue to be drug tested. This will make for a safety and healthier work environment. Workers should be drug tested for AIDS and other diseases, but in no way should they not be hired. AIDS and other diseases will not make employees work less poorly. They will complete their goals and objectives just as well as a person with no disease would. I feel that they are just discriminated against because they have AIDS, but people have to realize they are just as capable as anyone else. You can’t catch AIDS by working with someone in a factory or a company, so there is no need not to hire these people if they are certified and educated in completing the work that needs to be done. (Nickels)

Warning!!! This is just a sample Management dissertation (Management dissertation example) which cannot be used as your own paper. You can contact our custom dissertation writing service which provides college and university students with high-quality custom dissertations, thesis papers and research proposals on Management topics.

Get professional Management dissertation writing help from our professional Ph.D. and Master's academic writers. Premium quality and 100% plagiarism are guaranteed! Feel free to