Friday, December 7, 2012

Essay on the Middle East

French and British Mandates in the Arab World
The topic of the events in the Middle East is always in the news. What is more is that it has been in the news for over eight decades already, since the first intervention of the European Powers in the region  The following paper will deal with a topic related to the Arab countries of the area as well as the state of Israel by implication. However, the purpose of this paper is not to dwell upon the Arab-Israeli conflict, but to give an insight into the mandates exercised by Great Britain and France in the Middle East over the course of the 20th century.
In the early 1920s the world powers were still devastated by the results of the WWI. However, something had to be done with the problems that have arisen from the war as well the question of the territories in the Middle East was a topic of active discussion. When the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles, four mandate territories were created. According to the mandate structure, the territory, aside from Turkey, was placed under monarchies. Without a shadow of doubt, as Great Britain and France, which were the dominant powers in the League of Nations (precursor to the United Nations) convinced the new League of Nations to grant them quasi-colonial power over former Ottoman territories (Fromkin, 288)1. Thus, France obtained a mandate over Syria and Britain obtained a mandate over the areas which now include Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Jordan (Gilbert, 318)2.
Having stated how the Middle Eastern countries were divided between the world powers I would like to continue with describing how the two countries operated the obtained mandates on their territories. During the French mandate, a number of states were created in the Greater Syria. These states were as follows:  State of Greater Lebanon State of Alawites, State of Jabal Druze, State of Aleppo, State of Damascus and Sanjak of Alexandretta. However, it does not have to be said that the Syrians were hostile to the French mandate and to the division it created. Such attitude can be proved by the great amount of revolts that the French encountered in all of the Syrian states. Though, it must be said that Lebanon as the exception between the newly formed states. This is due to the fact that the Maronite Christians of Mount Lebanon were a community with a dream of independence that was being realized under the French (Fromkin, p. 289).
According to the British mandate the area was divided in two parts: the east of the Jordan River became the Emirate of Transjordan, and was ruled by Abdullah, and west of the Jordan River became the Palestine Mandate. The later territory would in the future become the state of Israel. It is significant to mention that with the division of territories Great Britain decided to undertake Palestine became a unified political entity for the first time in modern history. Naturally, the Arabs in the area were infuriated as well as petrified by the actions of the Great Britain. What had heated their anger was not only the step by step politics of the Brits targeted on the creation of the state of Israel, but also the fact that Great Britain failed to fulfill its promise to create an independent Arab state (Dominus, p. 97)3.
Thus, as it was made clear in the previous passages, the Arab people living on the territories on both British and French mandates were unsatisfied with the situation and opposed the powers’ control. However, while under the French mandate the Arab countries were mostly concerned with self determination and independence, in Palestine the situation was complicated by many other factors (Little, pp. 159-160)4. The population of the Palestine area was horrified by the promise of the Great Britain to support the creation of a Jewish national home. Thus, the people did not accept any of the proposals incorporated into the politics of Britain, fearing that this would only tie the knot of the creation of the Jewish state (Dominus, p. 93).
In March 1924, Great Britain had granted an elected assembly in Iraq. Certainly, this fact brought Syrian Arabs into even bigger distress and urged them to take actions. The main objective of the Syrian Arabs was to create a nationalist party that would be dealing with the questions concerning independence and national identity. In February 1925 the French permitted the nationalists to form the People's Party that was led by Faris al Khuri. The party was created, however nothing had really changed, in my opinion, this step by the French can be described simply as a placating move they took to quiet down the people for a while. Yet, Syrian nationalists, motivated, by the permission to create their party, continued to declare that there should be a treaty with France presenting French aims (Mandel, p 38)5. When negotiating this issue the Syrian nationalists stressed the fact that Great Britain and Iraq had already signed such treaty. It is obvious, that the French were not eager to sign a treaty of that kind, thus they did not respond to the Syrian petition on the matter. This led to unrest and strikes. To make a long story short, the treaty was reviewed, however, the French parliament never ratified it (Mandel, p. 39).
Earlier in the paper I have briefly introduced the French and British politics in the Middle East. In order to conclude the paper I would like to present the main difference between the French and British mandate in respect to the Arab world. According to the mandate of the French, the communities living on the acquired territories had to be recognized as independent nations (Dominus, pp 93-94). On the other hand, in the British mandate there was no recognition given to the Arab community living there. In reality they were only promised local autonomy “so far as circumstances permit” (Mouchy, p. 745)6.

Thursday, November 1, 2012

Essay on "Magician" by Gary Miranda

Commentary on Unseen poem: "Magician" By Gary Miranda
From the very beginning of the poem, through its very suggestive title, the reader is introduced to the special world of magicians, magic, magic tricks, which as we see from the start, does not, or more precisely, cannot exist without the audience who makes the “sleight” possible. The poem kidnaps the reader into experiencing a magic trick. In the first stanza the poet tells us “now you see it”, which marks the beginning of the trick which follows. The poem ends with the sentence “now you don’t”, letting the reader know that it worked, the illusion was successfully created, and that the most important participant in the process is not the magician himself, but the audience who allow the magic to happen. The poem has four stanzas.  In the first stanza the magician speaks to his audience revealing a secret, making the setting even more mysterious by doing so. He says that actually practicing for a magician is not that important as the willingness of the audience to be involved.

According to the magician, the easiest way the audience can actually contribute to the magic is through its desire to be tricked. The second stanza attempts to reveal a little more of the magician`s secret of success. The magician misdirects the audience towards noticing his left hand.  He tells the audience that he “counts on their mistake to care”. The trick is made possible through the willingness of the audience to actually obey and play the magician`s game, not wondering what might be in the magician`s other hand. The poet uses a memorable simile, “your undoing blooms like cancer”, to show that the audience`s failure to notice the secret behind the trick is in the same time the only way the trick can succeed. The poem advances toward its third stanza which reveals another astonishing secret: “most tricks are done before you think they`ve started”. The audience allows the tricks to happen through their willingness to believe in magic. They allow the magician to mislead them. They become successful at being tricked and therefore get exactly what they went for. The audience also receives another treat for their participation: the opportunity to become children again and actually believe in the power of magic. Hence, the magicians are able to use the vulnerability of human beings. The magician points out the fact that the audience values space more than time. This suggests that the secret behind the success of the trick is actually a weakness the audience has. Here is where the magic begins. The balls, the cards, the coins don`t physically disappear in a pocket or a sleeve, at the time the audience assumes that. The objects by then are long gone; their presence is history for the magician and a mystery for the audience. In the fourth and final stanza, the magician has one more confession to make. He tells his audience that whatever he gives them is not important because what he keeps makes the audience successful at being tricked. The secret is what makes magic so mysterious and attractive. The secret is which makes the audience interested. The usage of the term hinge in this context tries to illustrate the stability and instability of the magical universe. The suspense within the relationship between the magician and his audience, characterized mainly by the success of the audience in allowing itself to be tricked, reminds the reader about a love affair.

Therefore, the poet decides to use the simile “we are like lovers” followed by the question of willingness which actually feeds the suspense both in the world of magic and love. The next sentence attempts to replace the veil around the secrets of magic. The audience is being told that sometimes they are being tricked without willing and that`s the beauty in it all, the uncertainty of what one can find within a world of magic. The poem ends with the sentence “now you don’t”, which brings the audience`s experience to an end. The cycle of the world of this magic trick has been officially and successfully closed. The theme of the poem is revolving around the importance of the relationship between a magician and his audience. The poem also underlines the flaws of humans who through allowing themselves to be tricked manage to travel back to childhood and get closer to a universe which was believed to be long lost, where magic can become reality.
The tone of the poem can be characterized by seriousness and refinement. The rhythm, as well as the rhyme is irregular.  The sentences are rather short and easy to read. The words chosen by the poet are most often concrete, modern and slightly formal.   

Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Research Paper on Food

Food Research Paper
It is largely unlikely that any other topic has more far-reaching implications than food. This is because even equally critical prerequisites for human life such as air and soil are neither as capital- or labor-intensive, nor sensitive to acts of men and nature as our contemporary food chain. There is, however, an enormous discrepancy between the significance of food-related issues and the extent to which they covered by mainstream media. 
The September 11th 2006 issue of The Nation is a rare exception to this rule. The issue covers a wide spectrum of discussions revolving the economics, politics, technology and culture that surround our food system. This essay focuses on one of these issues, namely the influence of agriculture policy-making on urban life.
“Agriculture,” said the founder of a local farmers’ market to Habiba Alcindor, “is just what it says, it has a lot of culture in it” (37). This observation cannot be overestimated; the underlying culture of production, distribution and consumption of foodstuff can be examined from a plentiful of aspects. 

Alcindor, for example, finds considerable racial disparities in farming, including what she finds as entry barriers that prevent black farmers from trading their crops, which have caused a subsequent decline in the proportion of black farmers. She maintains that alternative distribution channels, in particular organic farming markets, do not only help to counterbalance the situation, but also reposition black farmers as “the building blocks for a new inner-city economy” (37). Farmers’ markets and organic farming have several other important implications for urban dwellers. Waters discuses several noteworthy points to consider:
First, the allocation of a greater proportion of households’ food expenditure to wholesome raw materials instead on processed food changes the way people treat eating altogether. Buying fruits, vegetables and meat that require extra work before consumption may lead to longer meals and improvements in the social and family life surrounding them.
Second, better awareness to the way food is produced helps to strengthen the ties between urban society and the society that feeds it – namely the farming workforce and its economic environment. This may mean a reluctance of urban voters to allow government subsidies to certain types of crops (such as corn), as well as the current tolerance towards unfair treatment of workers in the agricultural sector.
Third, such trends will inevitably lead to higher food prices. Consumers will have to pay the full price (in terms of dollars and cooking time) of their meals. Waters argues that current consumers tend to avoid this obligation at the moment, although it is possible that the net price of better food is lower than processed alternatives (13).
The fluctuations in food prices observed in the past several years teach us quite a few important lessons. A simple but nonetheless important message is that agricultural economies are rather sensitive and thus malleable enough to allow for some dramatic changes in it, as the issue’s editorial proposes (5). People who are usually unaware to the forces that underlie our food chain might be willing to consider an array of reforms and show a growing public pressure in this direction.      

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Monday, July 30, 2012

Weight and Health Paper

Traditionally, weight and health were considered to be two interdependent notions since any problems with weight naturally resulted in serious health problems. It should be said that people noticed such interdependence quite a long time ago but this idea was scientifically proved only in the last decades when the real impact of weight problems on health were revealed and scientifically analyzed (Paeratakul 178). At the same time, it is necessary to underline that the major problem of the modern society is the problem of overweight leading to obesity and correlated health problems.
In fact, I believed that weight and health were really interdependent but I was practically convinced that obesity is the major problem that can threaten to our health because of the changes of our weigth. Nevertheless, a friend of mine, who was a professional nutritionist, warned me that there was another side of the medal, which was often hidden from us because it was and still is quite rare in well developed countries, at least, compared to the problem of obesity. He told me that the nutrition of contemporary people had changed dramatically within the last few decades that inevitably affected their health. He underlined that along with the problem of obesity, one the major challenges of the modern American society, there is still a problem of insufficient and malnutrition, especially in developing countries that lead to numerous health problems of many people to the extent that thousands and even millions of people are starving. The lack of good nutrition results in the wrong development or, to put it more precisely, underdevelopment of human bodies, numerous illnesses caused by malnutrition, especially those related to digestion (Colburn 77).
As for the problem of overweight, this problem is not less serious and nowadays it really threatens to the US since it becomes a real epidemic (Duenwald 69). In fact, the problem of obesity considerably affects human health because it provokes a bunch of diseases, including the higher risk of cardio-vascular diseases, which are actually the most widely spread diseases leading to the fatal outcomes (Duenwald 72). At the same time the problem of obesity is provoked only partially by the wrong nutrition as my friend said. In fact, nowadays, we do not really know what we eat. The development of new technologies and chemical industry along with the development of biotechnologies made our food quite different from what human beings get used to receive from nature in the past. As a result, consumption of products containing fats and low consumption of vitamins contributes to the deficit of essential elements and vitamins in human body that negatively affects not only our weight that grows considerably but our health as well.
On the other hand, our lifestyle has also changed dramatically. The majority of people lead a sedative lifestyle that contribute to the growth of weight and deterioration of health (Paeratakul 188). It should be pointed out that the lack of physical activities increases not only weight but also the risk of numerous diseases, including cardio-vascular and obesity only makes this risk even higher.

In such a situation, it is really important to pay more attention to our weight as an indicator and one of the determining factors influencing our health. It is not a secret that the US has already launched the struggle with obesity and the cult of healthy body is growing widely spread in the US. However, it is necessary to underline that any efforts of a state, health care organizations, and other institutions will hardly have any effect as long as our lifestyle and our choice of food remain unchanged. In this respect, it should be said that basically the problems of weight in the US are provoked by the sedative lifestyle and consumption of unhealthy food, the food Americans get used to eat in fast food restaurants, for instance (Paeratakul 199). As a result, more and more people suffer from obesity and overweight that deteriorate their health.
Consequently, it is necessary to solve these two problems in order to improve our health and make our weight closer to the norm. To put it more precisely, it is necessary to lead a more active lifestyle, which include some regular physical exercises, sport, etc. Also, it is necessary to pay a particular attention to the food we consume daily. In this respect, Americans have little choice and the food that could be labeled as healthy is really few because basically the healthy food is produced by organic farming, which is underdeveloped in the US at the present moment (Griscom 144). As a result, people have to consume food that contains elements that may be potentially dangerous to our health or contribute to the growth of weight that actually also dangerous to our health. This is why it is necessary to solve the problem of the provision of Americans with safe and healthy food in order to solve the problem of overweight and correlated health problems.

Monday, July 16, 2012

Research Paper on Pornography

Should Pornography Be Banned?
1. Introduction
The porn industry has been around for ages and has evolved over the years into a phenomenon that generates billions of dollars every year. Nowadays you can find it on the Internet, in books, in magazines, and on TV. Recently, it has become evident that access to pornography is by no means limited, except for legally, to minors.

Fulfilling a sexual fantasy can take someone to a place of ecstasy. Not fulfilling a sexual fantasy can leave them frustrated and irritated. Coming close to fulfilling it can make them momentarily happy, which is where pornography does its job.

The fact is that a lot of people do a lot of things for sex. Consciously or subconsciously, the urge to procreate as human beings is something that is undeniable. Sigmund Freud is considered to be the founder of psychoanalysis and his theories involve the process of relating many human emotions, actions, and reactions to the primal impulses associated with sex. Although many criticize his theories as incomplete and closed-minded, his research has greatly contributed to mankind’s understanding sexual aggression, love, and many different complexes. These complexes are often transformed into multi-media, and more specifically pornography. Controversial fantasies such as rape, pedophilia, and incest are often the subject of pornographic material and can sometimes lead to the dangerous activity of an emotionally unstable individual and the endangerment of an undeserving victim. On the other hand, a lot of people who have not become serial killers regularly enjoy pornography, individually or as a group, and proceed to live a comfortable family life.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the pros and cons of pornography in a debate that would contribute to the hypothetical porn equivalent of the prohibition. It is of fundamental importance to acknowledge both the positive and the negative effects that pornography has on its users in order to realize the overall negative impact that this industry contributes.

2. The Positive Effects of Pornography
2.1. The Benefits of Pornography
There are many advocates of pornography, and the arguments they impose certainly have some rationale behind them. The world would be a very different place if pornography was banned and the change would not necessarily be for the better. Furthermore, it is an industry, which has boosted many economies and generates a lot of economic activity all over the world. There are many instances where pornography can help an individual or a couple. Many opinions state that there are no discernable effects of pornography and that that it actually has beneficial effects in terms of fantasy, sex education, and artistic expression (Malamuth and Billings, 1986, 85). For instance, consider a family of four. Included is a married couple and two children, a teenage boy and a teenage girl. In a hypothetical case, we can understand the positive effects pornography can have on each member of the family.

2.2. A Real Life Example
Let us consider the mother and the father. Naturally, after 15 years of marriage, the husband’s sex-drive has lowered considerably meanwhile the wife’s has risen. Unfortunately, neither looks the same as they did when they were newlyweds, especially the wife after having two children. This couple, which is in a monogamous relationship, may explore the option of viewing pornography together as a stimulant. They may find something very interesting for themselves, something that stimulates creativity in the bedroom that they never developed earlier, due to a lack of need. If the couples’ marriage were to crumble due to infidelity or a lack of romance stemming from disinterest and boredom, the children would suffer from a lot of turmoil that could have been otherwise avoided.

The children are affected in another way. The boy has had mixed sexual feelings and repressed his sexual identity for most of his life. He has a feeling that he might be gay but he is too shy to tell anyone, especially his old-fashioned father. The girl is going through puberty and is very curious and artistic by nature. Both children explore their feelings via pornography and satisfy their urges and understanding of sex. They realize that they are not ready yet to explore sex on their own but treat a suppressed need for sexual expression through pornography. Considering that they are enrolled in a private school with a religious curriculum, which does not support extensive sex education, this is a huge positive for the children. Otherwise the boy and the girl may have made themselves susceptible to the dangers that coincide with unprotected sex. By banning pornography, the consensus neglects to understand that it is merely a result of the fact that men and women are sexual beings (Malamuth and Billings, 1986, 85).

3. The Negative Effects of Pornography
3.1. Pornography and Sexual Aggression
A common criticism of pornography is that exposure can lead to increased sexual aggression in the viewers. In a report which explores the positive effects of experimenting with pornography, the research conducted suggests that sexual violence in pornography can create many anti-social effects, such as increased acceptance of rape myths, increased acceptance of violence against women and decreased perceptions of the suffering of a rape victim (Check and Malamuth, 1984, 15). Furthermore, a more recent study of 16 experiments which involved subject’s examination of violent and non violent pornography concluded that after exposure to the pornographic material, attitudes supporting sexual aggression increased (Malamuth et al., 2000, 44). Coupled with the idea that aggression towards women can have positive consequences (Malamuth and Ceniti), this can lead to some dangerous situations.

3.2. The Case of Ted Bundy
In the case of Ted Bundy, an infamous serial killer who murdered and raped many women and was executed for it, sex and more specifically pornography changed his life for the worse. In his final interview with James Dobson, Bundy told a story of how a little boy who was fascinated with pornography turned into the man that he was. His first exposure to pornography was when he was a minor, at the age of 13. The fascination and aggression he displayed was gradually brought forth from fantasy to reality. Although this is an extreme case, Bundy’s claim was that every criminal that he came in contact with while incarcerated shared a similar history and involvement with pornography (Dobson). For Bundy, along with many others, the addiction to immediate sexual gratification along with desensitization leads to acting out sexually in a violent way.

3.3. Considering the Youth
This brings us to a point that was explored by the Children’s Digital Media Center and Department of Psychology at the University of California. As mentioned earlier, access to pornography is by no means limited to adults. In a literary review, findings showed that there are many cases of children being inadvertently exposed to pornography through the use of peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. This exposure can influence sexual violence, moral values, and sexual activity of minors (Greenfield, 2004, 741). Misinformation gathered via this exposure can further harm children who already suffer from antisocial behavior.

When asked about these experiences, many of the subjects mentioned feelings of disgust (24.5%), shock/ surprise (23.6%) and embarrassment (21.4%) (Greenfield, 2004, 744). These are feelings that should never be associated with sex. Since the minors are not well educated on the matter, this can create lasting complexes. A boy can feel like he is inadequate while a girl can feel like it is okay to be mistreated, or vice versa depending on the type of pornography. Because the exposure is inadvertent and unintentional, many parents are unaware or unable to communicate about this issue. Furthermore, many children are not privileged enough to have the warm parent-child relationship needed in order to discuss the things they see.

4. Conclusion
Although there are certain ways to present pornography that would cause minimal harm to its viewers, the overall effect of pornography on our society is negative. For those who argue that pornography stimulates sexual expression, the fact is that pornography desensitizes the viewer until the point where only abnormal sexual activity is perceived as gratifying. For a couple that is having trouble being romantically involved with each other, there are many options that do not involve pornography, such as marriage counseling. The argument that pornography serves as a reasonable tool for sex education is preposterous, unless you would like your child to learn about rape and unprotected group-sex as opposed to STDs and pregnancy prevention. The problem with treating pornography as a form of artistic expression lies within the fact that most pornography is made for profit and not artistic expression. The sheer volume of material that is targeted to one target group but received by others is unparalleled by any other industry. The dangers of addiction, especially for minors, are too important to overlook. Just as propaganda that slanders certain religions, races, and people is cast away, so should the pornographic propaganda that teaches sexual aggression towards women is fine and that men and women are suppose to look a specific way to be considered beautiful. Until a substantial and effective method of censorship of content and distribution of pornography is established, its production and distribution must halt.
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Friday, July 13, 2012

Knowledge Assessment Essay

Knowledge Assessment
A growing body of literature indicates that preschool children experience a critical period in the course of their mental, cognitive and intellectual development. It follows that all stakeholders – principally authorities, parents and caregivers – should promote a safe, nurturing and respectful environment, which facilitates optimal conditions for the development of the young brain. Abundant evidence shows that this kind of environment, whose nature is comprehensively defined by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) under the term high quality child care, brings about tremendous improvements in terms of child development and future achievements. This paper reviews findings on short- and long-term benefits of high quality child care (in terms of e.g. cognitive stimulation, warmth and caregivers’ education) in several major domains.
First, the extent to which caregivers provide opportunities for physical activities, exploration of the surroundings and age-adjusted kinetic skills predicts child performance along the development milestones. The same holds true for the propensity for obesity, which declines in high quality environments (Lawlis, Mikhailovich, & Morrison, 2008). An additional benefit that promotes physical growth and well-being is the lower prevalence of childhood diseases among children who attend high quality care (NICHD, 2006).
In their multisite longitudinal study, Peisner-Feinberg et al. (2000) reviewed a large cohort from an earlier study (West, Wright, & Hausken, 1995). Focusing on cognitive, social and emotional development, the former study’s findings include, among others:
First, high quality child care was found to affect readiness to school and significantly decreased the effect of socioeconomic gaps. This holds true for cognitive measures such as math and language, as well as social conduct. Abnormal social behavior also seems to be less prevalent among well-cared cohorts.
Second, these effects continue to have long-term implications. That is, children who benefited from quality care during their preschool years show superior school performance. The authors define high quality care as predictor of school performance and indicate that children’s superior performance allowed them to gain higher benefits from the didactic and social opportunities in their schools. 
Third, high quality care compensates for traditional risk factors at childhood. This is especially true for children of poor educated mothers, who are considered as risk group for poor school performance. In fact, these populations showed the highest rate of improvement in both short-term and long-term measurements of numerous factors.
Finally, the quality of the teaching staff and the degree to which teachers and caregivers had closer relationships with the children were strongly correlated with the children’s behavioral development and academic achievements. Typical areas of superior performance included language, math, thinking and attention skills, sociability, problematic behavioral patterns and peer relations.
It is hard to overestimate the extent to which child care influences children’s development an through which their future. All the studies discusses in this short paper make a strong point that these interventions are not only indispensable to promote school and preschool performance, but also are extremely cost effective. This holds true especially for children at risk, for children of poorly educated parents, and for socioeconomically deprived toddlers and preschool children.       

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

American History Timeline Essay

1. Native Americans prior to European Colonization- The Native American people were known as hunters-gatherers. They practiced agriculture and aquaculture, used farms, and managed to sustain cities with their own architecture. There is much argument with regards to the size of the population at this time, with estimates ranging from 1 to 18 million people.

2. The Effects of British Colonization on the Native American People- In 1775, the British Empire consisted of 20 territories in North America.  Thirteen of these colonies are now known as the United States. Up until 1810, an estimated 400 thousand black slaves were exchanged for guns, gun powder and rum. Poor Europeans also served as slaves during the establishment of the British Thirteen Colonies. Between 1492- 1612, the majority of the indigenous population of America (Native Americans) had been due to epidemic diseases brought over by the European and Asian communities. With little freedom, the Native Peoples resorted to suicide and abortion as a form of self-protection.

3. Protestant Christianity and Colonial Social Life- The 18th century saw many changes in the way Christians acted amongst themselves, and their involvement in religious affairs. Events such as the Great Awakening, the American Revolution, and the debates surrounding the Church and the State were the cause of separation and denomination among the sects of religion in the early 19th century. The secularized society of the time challenged Christian orthodoxy and liberal Christianity became prominent among the people.

4. The Seven Years’ War-1756-1763- The war resulted in almost 1.5 million deaths to the participants’ nations, which included Prussia, Great Britain, Portugal, Spain, Germany, Austria, France, Russia, Sweden and Saxony. Although the war had officially begun in 1756, two years prior, the American and Canadian colonies had began battle with each other. The final battle in North America saw the French submit the rights to eastern North America to the British, in turn giving control to the prized fur trade of the subjected territories.

5. God Given Freedom of the Individual- The Protestant Reformation, beginning in 1517, resulted in a huge amount of innocent bloodshed. But it left a legacy which gave the right for a prince to choose the religion of the state. The effects of the scientific revolution (17th Century) brought the American Enlightenment, which took reasoning and applied it to religion. Coupled with the Great Awakening and the Declaration of Independence, these events resulted in the American people living with the freedom to choose his or her own path in life.

6. The Evolution of the Socio-political and Cultural Milieu- This evolution saw a lot of contributors and contributions. Much of it can be understood by analyzing the events surrounding the formation of the Declaration of Independence, the formation of the Constitution and the its amendments, including the Bill of Rights.

a. Declaration of Independence- On July 4th, 1776, the 13 United States of America had declared their independence from the British rule and King George III of Great Britain. The declaration of rights included the right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. The person most responsible for the declaration is Thomas Jefferson, who paved the way for individual human rights in America. 

b. Constitution- 1787-1788- The constitution serves as a replacement for the Articles of Confederation, which was used as an advisor to the national government and its operations. The constitution divided the national government into three branches: legislative, executive, and judiciary, a means to the end of preventing tyranny.

Bill of Rights- 1789-1791- This document serves as a list of amendments to the constitution, with the purpose of limiting the governments influences on personal freedoms. In 1789 James Madison made the first amendments. The document was ratified in 1791.

7. George Washington- 1789-1797- This was the term of the first president of the United States. Vice president, John Adams succeeded George Washington as presdient. He pioneered the concept of a cabinet system and the delivery of inagurual address. He is known as the father of the Us, a contributor to the US constitution, and a leader who created a government that was accepted by Americans all over the country. His leadership, strong-will, military experience, and self-sacrifice served as a model for presidents who came after and for the citizens of the country from that point onwards.

8. The Evolution of Jeffersonian Democracy- 1800-1820- Named after the 3rd president of the US, the name refers to a philosophy that empowers republicanism against British imperialism. The development of Jeffersonian democracy was based on the ideal that the citizens of the US had the power to prevent the corruption of government. The group of Jeffersonians, which included James Madison, Nathaniel Bacon, Albert Gallatin, and John Randolph, preached freedom of speech, a separation between church and state, civic duty, and the right to be informed, in the name of the American citizen. 

a. Louisiana Purchase- 1803- This event refers to the purchase of over 800 square miles of land, known as the territory of Louisiana, from France. The U.S. paid $217 USD in today’s currency for a piece of land that was double the size of the United States. The acquisition was received with criticism, as it seemed to oppose the Jeffersonian philosophy. Simultaneously, it created an opportunity for a power shift for the United States over England. Thomas Jefferson’s main motivation for acquiring the land was to maintain access and control over New Orleans, which possessed the most utilized port for import and export goods in the United States.

b. The Second Great Awakening- 1790- 1840- This was a great religious movement which caused new reform denominations of Christian people to be realized. The religious upheaval had positively important effects on people, which included a change to the attitudes of the middle class people via a promotion of strong work ethic, temperance, and ridding the people of suffering and injustice. Slaves and slaveholders were included together in participation of conversions and speeches. 

c. The Embargo Act- 1807-1809- Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, in order to prevent war and protect American interests, imposed The Embargo Act. The act restricted Americans from participating in foreign trade during a French-British conflict over European control. The idea was to influence the French and the British using economic means rather than war, and put an end to their conflict. The act failed due to loopholes, created a financial imbalance for the U.S., and the U.S. was forced into war that same summer. 

d. Issues with the Courts- Thomas Jefferson and the Jeffersonians confronted Federalist judges and courts. While many Jeffersonians wanted to abolish the federal judiciary system, Jefferson did not. He did however combat the attempts to increase the power of national courts. In a very controversial sequence of events, several judges impeached and convicted.

9.  The War of 1812- 1812-1815- The U.S. had declared war against the British Empire. Reasons included trade restrictions and “the press” of Americans into the Royal Navy. The war between the Americans and the British involved the invasion of Upper and Lower Canada, via sea, warships and privateers. Neither of the participants won ground on each other and the relationship between Britain and the U.S. got better. Many parts of British North America were demilitarized, British impressments ceased, and in the Treaty of 1818, border negotiations were made. 

10. The Monroe Doctrine- 1823- First stated by James Munroe, the doctrine addressed an issue that was a concern to Great Britain and Spain, as well as the U.S. Its goal was to ensure that no European power would attempt to further colonize any parts of the U.S., deeming this effort as an act of aggression. The doctrine was unexpectedly successful and had a lasting effect for nations seeking independence over the next two centuries.

11. The Evolution of Jacksonian Democracy- 1828-1850- Contrary to Jeffersonian Democracy, president Andrew Jackson preached power to the executive branch of the government while minimizing Congress. Among Jackson’s more notable actions (and non-actions) was the inclusion of all white males into the people entitled to vote, the avoidance of controversy regarding slavery, and the rewriting multiple state constitutions. 

a. The Nullification Crisis- 1832- South Carolina’s Ordinance of Nullification was the catalyst for this crisis. The ordinance challenged the federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832, which forces southerners to pay higher prices on goods they did not produce, in order to protect the northerners. The end result saw reductions in tariff rates, which satisfied the opposition in the South.

b. The Bank Crisis- 1832-1833- Andrew Jackson held a strong opposition to the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson declared that the bank needed to be overruled and eradicated because it concentrated the nation’s wealth into one institution, it exposed government to the threat of control by foreign powers, made the rich richer and the poor poorer, favored states geographically, and held too much power over Congress. Jackson was successful as he withdrew U.S. funds and redistributed it among other banks, land sales, cotton production, as well as other areas.

c. The Trail of Tears- 1831-1837- Catalyzed by the relocation of the Choctaw Nation to Cherokee in 1831, the Trail of Tears refers to the forced removal of tens of thousands of Native Americans from southeastern states, freeing 25 million acres of land.

d. The Manifest Destiny- 1845- John O’Sullivan coined this term while discussing expansion plans of the James Polk administration. The Manifest Destiny refers to the belief that the U.S. should expand across the whole continent of North America, and was even used as an excuse for the upcoming Mexican-American war. The idea was not well received, especially by those who would have rather focused on strengthening the economy instead of expanding territory.

e. The Causes and Effects of the Mexican War- 1846-1848- This war was a result of a miscommunication between the two countries, in regards to the annexation of Texas. Mexico, despite the Texas Revolution of 1836, saw Texas as part of its territory. American military invaded and overpowered Mexican territory, forcefully exchanging $15 million for the territories of California and New Mexico.