Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Maya Angelou

I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, by Maya Angelou, is of great value to not only myself, but to society as a whole. By portraying her own life through the book, she is able to convey the difficulties associated with the mixture of racial and gender discrimination dealt with by young, Southern black girls. At the same time, she touches on subjects from child abuse to the search for one's purpose in life.

Maya wastes no time plunging into the controversy of racial discrimination within the first few pages of her book. As a child, Maya feels an intense sense of displacement as a black girl and when her "Momma" sews her a new Sunday dress, Maya believes this will be her chance to fit in with the genteel, white girls. When the dress is finished, Maya believes it is nothing more than a "white womans throw-away" and she is forced to conclude that she will always be an ugly black child who could never measure up to the pretty white girls. The racist society that existed around Maya as a child had her convinced that she could be nothing more than a poor black girl in a white man's world.

Throughout the book, Maya Angelou endures incidents that not only teach her , but also the reader, about the horrible nature of racism. One such incident was when Mrs. Cullinan's condescendingly renamed Maya to suit her own preferences. Maya proved that, as a black girl, she did not have to tolerate Mrs. Cullinan's discrimination and she resisted by smashing some of her employer's fine china. Maya witnessed another bout with racism when a local white dentist refused to treat her and claimed he would rather stick his hand in a dogs mouth. Also, at Maya's eighth grade graduation, Mr. Donleavy, a white guest speaker, spoke of a black individual's limited potential in their racist society and embarrassed the entire black community. Henry Reed, the valedictorian, stood and led the graduates into the black national anthem, demonstrating the great pride blacks have in their heritage. In each situation, Maya, individually or with her entire black community, overcame racism and proved she was not below the white race. She displayed that, regardless of a person's skin color, a young girl can develop into a strong and independent woman. Maya showed everyone that, although she was surrounded by white bigots, she could raise above the racists and become a confident and successful black girl.

Besides racism, Maya also speaks to many issues, such as relationships between parents and children and child abuse. Maya's parents abandoned her as a very young girl and Maya turns out growing up in one of the most segregated and racist areas of the country, the deep south. Maya feels very alone and wonders why her real mother left her, forcing her to isolate herself at a young age. As Maya's mother becomes a part of her life again, the sense of displacement disappears and she develops into a confident young woman, portraying the importance of a strong parent to child relationship.

The book is important to me because it shows that regardless of all the problems thrown at a person while growing up, it is possible to prevail over these obstacles and become a confident and successful adult. Maya was able to become the first black streetcar conductor at the ripe age of fifteen, a huge success that, at the time, seemed virtually impossible. After running away from her father's girlfriend Dolores, Maya finds herself among the homeless. Fending for herself taught Maya to be strong and self-assured and she survived living on her own, proving once again that, if you put your mind to it, everything is possible. Finally, Maya overcame one of the greatest hardships of life, being pregnant, and she developed even more confidence as a mother.

Maya confronts her own life with great dignity and proves that a young black girl can survive and become successful, even through the racist conditions that existed in the 1930's-1950's. She displays that anyone can be successful, regardless of their gender or race.

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Aristotle's Theories

In book III of Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle presents the audience with theories to explain why individuals do things that they do. Although several theories have been offered to depict such actions, Aristotle believes his theory of responsibility gives a clear and accurate representation about whether or not an individual is responsible for his or her actions. Though Aristotle rejected his first theory of responsibility, which stated that a person is responsible for his or her voluntary actions only, his new theory that said that a person may be responsible for his or her not voluntary actions was accepted by many. To portray this theory in his text, Aristotle gives examples and supports this theory with other theories, such as the theories of character acquisition and action, to explain how actions form a person’s character and what actions are voluntary or not voluntary. Because there are some that critique and objection to Aristotle’s responsibility theory, it is important for the reader to consider how Aristotle could have created a better response to these objections and determine how adequate his resulting views on his theories are.

Aristotle’s theory of responsibility was established through his theories of character acquisition and action. His theory of character acquisition states that people get their character from repetitively demonstrating actions they think are best, while his theory of action distinguishes between what actions are voluntary or not voluntary. A person that chooses to do his or actions and deliberate upon them performs the actions voluntarily. On the other hand, a person who is forced into doing actions or is doing them out of ignorance is performing the actions not voluntarily. According to Aristotle, a person is acting involuntarily if he or she acts not voluntarily but feels no pain or regret. Because Aristotle notes in his theories that ones character is developed over time and certain actions may be considered voluntary or not voluntary, it may be difficult to determine if a persons actions in certain circumstances would make that individual responsible or not responsible. For that reason, Aristotle developed his theory of responsibility. This theory states that a person is responsible for his or her actions if he or she did it voluntarily or he or she deliberated and made the best decision based on the deliberation. Aristotle adds, “It is only vices of the soul that are voluntary; vices of the body are also voluntary for some people. [Means and states] are up to us and are voluntary. Actions and states, however, are not voluntary in the same way. For we are in control of actions from the beginning to the end, when we know the particulars. With states, however, we are in control of the beginning, but do not know…what the cumulative effect of particular actions will be” (Aristotle, 39-40).

According to Aristotle, a person who acts voluntarily is responsible no matter what but depending on the circumstances, a person may or not be held responsible after making a not voluntary or involuntary action.

In Chapter 5 of Book III in Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle presents an objection to his responsibility theory. He states that people may believe that everybody seeks what may seem good to them but they have no say as to what appears to them. For instance, a person with a bad character may repetitively do bad things voluntarily, but are they really responsible if they are doing what they believe to be best? Some may also believe that ones character is caused by nature, and one cannot not be responsible for what nature dishes out and how they choose to react to it. To this objection, Aristotle says that, “If each person is in some way responsible for his own state [of character], he is also himself in some way responsible for how [the end] appears” (Aristotle, 39). Aristotle believes that because we determine our ends, both virtues and vices are voluntary. Just as Aristotle stated in his theory of character acquisition, people are they way they are because they have made their character that way through habituation and repetitive actions. When people act voluntarily they have the ability to deliberate and make the right decisions and therefore are responsible. This objection relates closely with Jason’s situation in Geoff Sayre-McCord’s Philosophy Lecture. Jason was asked to partake in an experiment and sign a waiver allowing Geoff to control his desires which is turn made Jason do silly actions such as singing “Happy Birthday,” barking like a dog, and giving out money. Because Jason had no say in what desires Geoff gave him, it would seem as if Jason’s actions were not voluntary, but according to Aristotle he was able to deliberate and choose his actions so his actions are voluntary. Jason did sign a waiver to be in the experiment, and therefore was held responsible for his actions. Some may object, just like some may object to Aristotle’s responsibility theory, that Jason was not told what he would be doing or the extent of the experiment. Therefore, these critics would believe his actions were voluntary because but he is not responsible because Geoff was controlling his desires and making him think about doing things that were out of his character. Although Jason was acting voluntarily, he decided and deliberated on being in the experiment and he was able to deliberate about his actions, which made him responsible for whatever desires Geoff gave him. Though it may have been out of Jason’s character to follow orders from Geoff, it was in his character to partake in the experiment and therefore he should be held responsible for his actions.

To make his responsibility theory clearer to those who may object, Aristotle could strengthen his argument on how individuals are able to make decisions and act voluntarily and are therefore responsible for his or her actions. He could question that if that individual is not responsible, who is? Why would the person be able to think in the first place if his choices would not matter? If people continued to believe that nature rules over what they do, everybody would be lazy and not do anything and be very unjust because they would make themselves believe that is their character and there was no way of changing that. To most people blaming their bad decisions and actions on nature will let them off the hook. To make his point stronger, Aristotle could look at the views of those that may criticize his theory and reject all possible reasons for why nature does not create an individuals character since people do have the power to make decisions.

Concerning Aristotle’s theory of responsibility, I agree that people are who they are because they have made their character that way. Like Aristotle, I also believe that people are responsible for all of their voluntary actions, and some may be responsible for their actions that are not voluntary as well. The girl that drove drunk in the story A Vignette on Drunk Driving is a prime example. The girl did not choose or deliberate on hitting the woman’s car but she is held responsible because she did choose to drink and drive; she therefore did not do it voluntarily but she is held responsible. I also agree with Aristotle’s theories of character acquisition and action. Peoples character is based on the actions they do repetitively and are acting voluntarily if they choose and deliberate on an action, but are not acting voluntarily if they are forced or are acting out of ignorance. The objection states that though the girl did drive voluntarily, she should not be responsible for hitting the woman because it was in her character that was formed based on outside forces. People have the ability to choose their character, despite what people that believe in the objection may think. It seems as if people make the best decisions to get to an end and they do the actions that they feel that can best take them in that direction. Therefore, I think that Aristotle’s resulting views are adequate, “For in fact we are ourselves in a way jointly responsible for our states of character, and the sort of character we have determines the sort of end we lay down. Hence the vices will also be voluntary, since the same is true of them” (Aristotle, 39). Aristotle believes that everybody is responsible for his or her voluntary actions and people do what they do in order to get to an end. Furthermore, his views are not far fetched; rather they seem realistic and adequate in labeling a persons actions and character acquisition.

Aristotle developed wonderful theories in his work Nicomachean Ethics, such as his theory of character acquisition, theory of action, and theory of responsibility. He is fair and practical in his labeling of whom should be held responsible or not responsible due to the individual’s actions. Though some may criticize his theories, similar to how many do not agree that Jason should be responsible for his actions, Aristotle stands firm in his beliefs and provides evidence to help support his opinions. I believe that Aristotle has strong, rational views but with a bit more evidence and taking others beliefs into consideration, he could have developed theories to persuade everybody.

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Thursday, April 23, 2009


Do you know how earthquakes arise? Things such as Elastic Rebound theory, Major earthquake zones, How big seismic waves are, locating earthquakes, earthquake measurement, Destruction to buildings and properties, Tsunamis, Earthquake warnings and predictions, and earthquake safety, all have a part in preparing and knowing how to deal with a earthquake situation; also knowing what makes a earthquake come to pass.

Geologists explain many earthquakes by the elastic rebound theory. According to this theory, the rocks on each side of a fault are moving slowly. If the fault is locked, stress in the rocks increases. When they are stressed to a certain point, however, the rocks fracture, separate at their weakest point, and spring back to their original shape, or rebound. Alas the reason for calling it the elastic rebound, because they bounce back to their original state of being unstressed.

Many times when the rocks fall into new positions they release energy in a form of vibrations called seismic waves. That release of energy often causes stress to other rocks; they break and come back to their original state. This is often the reason that huge earthquakes are followed by a series of small upheaval called aftershocks. Where the fault is, the first slippage occurs, and that is called the focus of the earthquake. And the epicenter is located right above the focus. Most earthquakes have a shallow focus.

Most earthquakes occur near the earths lithospheric plates. So it often show that the theory of plate tectonics is somewhat true. The earth has three major subduction zones. The first is a large area called the pacific ring of fire, this includes north and south America the east coast of Asia, and the western pacific islands of the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, and New Zealand. Most of the plates are being sub ducted, while some plate scrape past each other.
The second major earthquake zone is along the mid ocean ridges. They occur there because the oceanic crust is pulling away from both sides of each ridge. This creates stress along the major ocean ridges.

The third major earthquake zone is the Eurasian-Melanesian mountain belt. Mountains along that region were formed by a collision between the Eurasian plate and the African, and Indian plates. Those plate are still colliding, and the same forces are still producing numerous earthquakes.

Scientists have determined that every earthquake produces three major types of seismic waves, each type travels at a different speed and causes different movements in the earths crust. Primary waves or p-waves move the fastest and are the first to be recorded by a seismograph. They may travel through liquids and solids. P waves also cause rock particles to move together and apart along the direction of the waves. Secondary waves or S-waves are the second waves to be recorded on the seismograph. S waves can only travel through solid material. S waves cannot be detected on the side of the earth that is opposite of the earthquakes epicenter: They cannot be detected because they do not penetrate through the earths liquid outer core. S waves cause rocks to move at right angles to the direction in which the waves are traveling. Long waves or L-waves are the slowest moving waves and they are the last to be recorded on the seismograph. L waves travel slowly, similar to ocean waves.
The way scientists find the epicenter of an earthquake, scientists analyze the arrival times between P waves and S waves. If the S waves arrive soon after the P waves, that means that the earthquake must have originated fairly close to where the seismograph station. To find out how far an earthquake is from a certain seismograph station, the scientists plot the difference between the arrival times of both the waves. For scientists to locate the epicenter of the earthquake, they need information from at least three seismograph stations at different locations.

To measure an earthquake, scientists use a richer scale to note the magnitude of and earthquake. A major earthquake, one that causes widespread damage, has a magnitude of 7 or above. A moderate earthquake has a magnitude between 6 and 7, And a minor earthquake, between 2.5 and 6. Earthquakes with magnitudes of less that 2.5 are called micro quakes, which usually are not felt by people. The mercalli scale says that intensity of an earthquake, or the amount of damage it causes, and a description. And earthquake with a rating of II , this has low intensity, and is, “Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings. Delicately suspended objects may swing.” One with a higher rating, like if it were rated X, is described as follows, “Some well built wooden structures destroyed; most masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations; ground badly cracked, rails bent, shifted sand and mud.” The highest rating would be XII and means “total destruction.”
Destruction to buildings and such, can be prevented. Because buildings with week walls may completely collapse, some may even fall over. A building constructed in loose soil is more likely to be damaged, opposed to one that is built on solid ground; Because during an earthquake, the soil moves around like jelly. Then the building may proceed to sway violently and fall over. Most buildings are not designed to with stand the swaying motion caused by earthquakes. Most things are not constructed to withstand an earthquake, but nowadays they are testing the ground, and things like that to make sure it would be safe to build certain objects in certain areas.

A tsunami is major earthquake with an epicenter on the ocean floor and sometimes causes a giant ocean wave. Tsunami comes from Japanese and means “harbor Wave.” Two things are factors in tsunamis; Faulting and underwater landslides, and severe underwater landslides. Faulting may cause a sudden drop or rise in the ocean floor, a large mass of water also rises or drops. This mass of water goes up and down and it adjusts to the change in sea level. The more violent water goes into a series of long waves that develop into tsunamis. Disastrous earthquakes and tsunamis have encouraged the expansion and improvement of the Seismic Sea Wave Warning System. Scientists have numerous seismographs stations on the pacific ocean, and they can issue warnings immediately to the areas that may be affected. However, there will not be enough time to issue tsunami warnings to areas very near the epicenter of the earthquake.

Scientists have dreamed of being able to one day accurately prediction earthquakes. One of the earliest ways of prediction was watching animals; People knew that just before an earthquake, animals appear nervous and restless, almost as if they could sense the coming catastrophe. Scientists can make approximate predictions of future earthquakes, but may be off a few years. To make more accurate predictions, scientists are studying changes in the earths crust that can signal an approaching earthquake. Along some faults, scientists have identified zones of immobile rock called seismic gaps; it takes place where the fault is locked and unable to move. Scientists think that seismic gaps are future locations for earthquakes, due to stressed rocks. Several gaps that exist along the San Andreas Fault will probably be sites for earthquakes in the future. Scientists can detect a slight tilting of the ground, shortly before an earthquake. Some earthquakes are preceded by a decrease in the speed of local p-waves. Evidence suggest that the longer the decrease in speed lasts, the longer the earthquake will be. Most scientist would like to be able to control earthquakes. In fact, tests at Rangely, Colorado, showed that when water as injected along a fault, friction was reduced and the earthquake was less severe.

Destructive earthquakes may occur in any part of the united states, very destructive earthquakes are most likely to happen in California or Alaska; mainly be cause they are located on a fault, The Pacific Ring of Fire. Before an earthquake occurs, be prepared. Keep canned food, bottled water, flashlights, batteries, and a portable radio. Please don’t forget a manual can opener, most people don’t think of that until they can’t do anything about it anymore. During an earthquake, stay calm. Most of the time there are a few seconds between shaking, so that you may find a safer location. Stand in a doorway, or crouch under a desk, so that falling debris may not fall on you. If you are in a car, stay in your car, but be sure to be far away from buildings which may collapse. After a earthquake, be alert. Check for safety and health hazards. Always wear shoes around broken glass. Don’t touch things such as downed wires and things.

In conclusion, earthquakes have been intriguing us for some time now, but hope fully we will be able to predict where they will strike, plan ahead; safety precautions. In the future we may find out how and why to stop earthquakes from happening. But all in all, earthquakes are fascinating, and may be vile at the same time.

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Wednesday, April 15, 2009

College Research Papers

Studying in college requires from students a lot of abilities, skills and gifts to be successful in education. If you are college student – you know exactly what writing college papers means. There are a lot of academic papers which are assigned in college to be written: essays, term papers, research papers, speeches, book reports/reviews and other assignments.

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Criminal Justice System

The criminal justice system consists of the State and Commonwealth institutions, agencies, departments and personnel responsible for dealing with the judicial aspects of crime, the victims of crime, the persons accused or convicted of a crime, other related issues and processes. The criminal justice system refers to a network of agencies that responds to a crime, including the police, courts and prisons. It is important that each of these arms uses the resources and processes available to protect the society in as fair a manner as it can. Society expects that the criminal justice system should achieve and maintain particular goals, standards and values in society, and that crimes be eliminated efficiently and effectively under limited resources. It is argued that modern criminal justice system is actually an беinjusticeбж one. From many perspectives, it appears as though the criminal justice system serves injustice rather than justice. Discretion of police officers and prosecutors as well as the law enforcement functions carried out by judicial officers are important to pinpoint whether or not the criminal justice system should be labeled the criminal injustice system. It is no doubt a well thought-out system. But in reality, as well as when it is applied in practice, its flaws are apparent.

The main concern for the criminal justice system is to determine and dispense justice. Justice, however, is a concept that is difficult to define. In the administration of criminal justice, it is important to apply the law equally to all citizens irrespective of their social, economic and political discrepancies. It certainly could be argued that the law itself could not be fair if it is discriminating against certain individuals or groups within the society. The major flaw of the criminal justice system is discrimination, on the basis of ethnicity, gender and class. In determining the fairness and effectiveness of the system, the discretionary powers of various agencies have to be evaluated. Is this power empowered upon those agencies being abused in a discriminatory manner? In determining how fair and effective the criminal justice system is, all aspects in relation to discretionary powers, discriminatory behaviour and procedures, the police, the judiciary, corrections, juvenile justice, indigenous issues, victims' rights and offenders' rights need to be scrutinized and evaluated. To illustrate that the criminal justice system is actually an injustice one, there are a few examples we can look at in the Australian context.

The police have enormous discretionary powers - one of which is the power to either charge or divert offenders from the criminal justice system. Within this discretionary power, there is a potential for that power to be abused, especially with corruption being an entrenched culture of the police force. The police have a wide discretion in relation to their law enforcement duties. They may selectively enforce certain laws, or may choose to selectively police certain groups of people. Police discretion has regularly been exercised in a manner that is unacceptable by the general public. It seems that further constraints are necessary to be imposed upon police discretion, particularly in relation to arrest, bail and custodial practices. At the very least, the authority of police in relation to certain aspects of arrest, bail and custodial procedures should be mandatory rather than discretionary and they should be subject to further training, close supervision and monitoring. Complaints about police have included inappropriate responses to hate crimes against homosexuals and their not taking complaints of racial abuse by non-English speaking people seriously. Traditional policing methods are reactive, focusing on street crime and protecting the private property. All these could be seen to have reflected the interests of the dominant group. It is never easy to measure whether the police work effectively or not. However, it could be questioned amongst the claims of corruption and inappropriate responses.

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Sunday, April 12, 2009

MBA Research Paper

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Friday, April 10, 2009

MBA Thesis Writing

MBA thesis writing… sounds rather frightening, doesn't it? For the majority of students it does, since they comprehend what it means to write an MBA thesis paper. The process of writing an MBA thesis paper can last for quite a while, and this work cannot be called an easy one.

Writing an MBA thesis is a really back-breaking and time-consuming task. What is the goal of MBA thesis paper writing? Why ought student to spend days and nights working on this kind of academic assignment?

The purpose of MBA thesis paper writing is to show your level of knowledge as well as to deepen it in the process of completing this project, so that you can apply all skills and knowledge on practice, in the real life. That's why if you want to show your best, you'd better do not put off writing your MBA thesis papers and start working on it right now.

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Actually, there are a lot of free guidelines and tips on how to write an effective MBA dissertation or MBA thesis for your university degree. There are also plenty of databases with sample MBA theses and MBA thesis examples on different topics. But how to get a 100% original MBA thesis made by professional freelance academic writers with Ph.D. level?

Naturally, you can order a custom MBA thesis paper on any topic and spend the rest of your time in the university having fun and enjoying yourself. We're not going to tell you why it is wrong or why you have to definitely order custom MBA thesis paper, you are a big girl/boy and you can make your mind what is better for you.

Thus, in this post we'd like to present you the basic things you need to keep in mind when preparing your MBA thesis papers (or while checking the ordered project):
1. Mind the citation style your MBA thesis should be written in (MLA, APA, Turabian or Harvard). All text have to be formatted strictly following the established requirements.
2. Check whether the topic of your MBA thesis paper is covered properly or some more evidences or theory ought to be added.
3. Edit the works cited list several times. Make sure all the thesis references are formatted thoroughly, no punctuation was omitted.
4. Double-check if the specifications set by the committee and your tutor are followed or not.

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How to Write a Coursework

Writing a coursework is a rather complicated assignment unless you have good essay writing skills and creative approach to academic writing. Many students often have problems in coursework writing. Some of them have no idea how to prepare a good coursework at all. The following question arises: "How to do an excellent coursework paper???"

A coursework paper is usually a semester work. Professors are fond of assigning it for 2 reasons. The first and most essential reason is that being a separate kind of writing, a coursework opposing to pop quizzes can't only show how well you know the studied material, but also shows your attitude towards it and the understanding of problems. The second reason for assigning coursework papers is its flexibility. Coursework is a general name for any kind of academic writing – from an essay to the research paper. That's why the depth of your investigation may be adjusted, too.

As to the coursework tips on how to write a coursework, there is one tip you will must memorize by heart. These coursework writing tips on how to write a good coursework will certailny help you in preparing a coursework paper on any topic. Be sure to work hard within the semester. You will see how much easier coursework writing will become once you are up to the coursework topic. Taking good notes, you will be half way made with your coursework paper, and even if you aren't going to use them in the body itself, they will serve you as a backup.

Another coursework tip on how to do a coursework proposes you to have a clear idea of what you are going to write. In other words you will have typical problems with planning your coursework and thinking of how and what to write about.

Skilled students also know that any coursework paper has to be based on some additional material. Perhaps you will be assigned the books that are available on campus. Some good reading, detailed notes and attention – and the coursework is ready. Remember to comprise the list of resources used into your coursework writing; in other words you will be accused of committing academic frauds. The last but not the least is coursework editing and coursework proofreading to make sure everything is excellent before turning the assignment in. If you are exhausted, set editing aside for some time, but do come back to it.

Coursework writing is more like a research paper or essay. These types of writing differ in a pattern of organization, but are similar in a way of studying sources. During coursework writing, make use those sources that have been used in class. If a professor gives you choice freedom, be original and creative – add something interesting and new.

An essay structure is standard, and comprises essay introduction, essay body (main paragraphs), and essay conclusion. In the coursework writing the professor will look for the assessment of the coursework topic, your personal theories and researches, which is more essential, your attitude to studied material.

If writing a coursework that takes a shape of a research paper, remember to comprise a statement of the problem. Ususally academic research papers tend to be more practical. That's why this kind of coursework writing has to be concentrated around the Methodology chapter, where you need to make use all available tools to provide coursework paper with the deep analysis. Not less essential while writing a coursework is a tribute to earlier researches. Don't forget to comprise data about all sources used to get rid of accusations of plagiarism.

And the final step, during course work writing, essay writing or research writing, remember that a conclusion chapter is not your final breath, that is barely heard, but a strong and self-confident statement.

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Thursday, April 9, 2009

How to Write a Thesis Proposal

Academic thesis proposal is a document presenting a general overview of your work, it is generally done as a written report and presented on a seminar. Then a post-graduate committee is to analyze your report and to give its impersonal and objective judgment. We have collected some essential tips on how to write a good thesis proposal.

When you have been asked to turn in a thesis proposal you have to clearly comprehend that its aim is to persuade your audience that:
  1. your thesis paper research is essential and significant;
  2. it makes authentic contribution to the science field;
  3. your research has correspondance with your knowledge and interest;
  4. it can be finished within the time requested.
Note that there exists some difference between a Doctorate and Master's thesis paper proposals. It is rooted in the complexity and lenght of the research. PhD thesis proposal ought to contain some fresh and actual ideas.

In both cases writing a thesis proposal has much significance for the author: it clarifies the thesis paper's goals and aims, determines the perspectives, describes the unique methods to be used, predicts problems and ways of solving them as well as outcomes.

An excellent thesis proposal should have the next structure:
  • thesis abstract – it consists of several paragraphs which present a winning resume of the proposal;
  • thesis introduction – it involves the reader in reading your proposals and sets the framework for your proposed projects;
  • thesis theoretical issues – a statement of the theoretical problem under consideration;
  • thesis literature review – a brief but exact description of the sources for your research, outlining their significance for the work;
  • thesis key questions – the main questions of your research with answers that are not obvious;
  • thesis methodology – a sufficient description of the methods you are going to apply to the paper with the purpose of answering the key questions;
  • thesis conclusions and implications of research – explain the results expected, your work's achievements' contribution to the field, the methods you have chosen to use in order to ensure the validity and accuracy of the results;
  • thesis proposal summary – it is a restatement and specification of your goals;
  • thesis bibliography – do it in the same style your research work is going to be done.

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Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Lord of Flies

For human civilization to function effectively society must have rules, and these must be obeyed” Discuss this statement in relation to ‘Lord Of the Flies’ and identify how society can learn from events that took place in the novel. What is the message that this book brings to society?

Our world is run by laws, which are expected to be followed, understood and respected. Rules are a statement of what is allowed, they keep order in our homes, towns, and countries. We discover while reading “Lord Of The Flies” what would occur if all laws and the normal order of our lives were removed. The characters find themselves in a struggle against the usual impulse to obey rules. They begin to rebel against civilization and revert back to their violent ancestry.

Not only are rules needed to keep order in our society; they also govern what we do and where we stand. We know what to do when we have rules; it is a human trait to feel lost without rules. As the characters in “ Lord of the Flies” discovered, we are so used to having rules applied upon us. So when they are taken away, we are unsure of how to react. Piggy found the need for rules early in the text. “ How can you expect to be rescued if you don’t put first things first and act proper”? He found the need for rules, and although the boys found joy in not having to attend school. The idea of no rules and no limits frightened them.

Piggy represents order and democracy in a world (the world of “Lord of the Flies”) chaos and anarchy. He was the one who suggested the use of rules to begin with. Throughout the novel Piggy found the need to constantly be given rules, and always found the need to stick by them. Piggy dies for what he believed in, leaving his dying statement to be “ Which is better-to have rules and agree, or to hunt and kill?” Piggy was constantly reverting back to “ My Aunt this.. And my aunt that” he clung to civilization with sheer desperation. He, unlike the majority of the boys, understood the necessity for law and order.

William Golding wrote “Lord of the Flies” to produce an understanding on how political systems (i.e. the government) cannot rule society without taking into consideration the faults of human nature. He attempted to show this by giving each character a “role” to play. Showing that without rules, humans will run ramped and revert back to what they were in the beginning. Without rules, humans will have no boundaries to abide by making them show their animal like qualities. Rules and order are what separates us from animals. If regulations are removed humans will show their natural qualities, as Golding is trying to prove in “Lord of the Flies”

Anarchy defeats order in many situations that occur throughout “ Lord of the Flies”. The killing of Simon, Piggy, the hunting of the pigs, the stealing of Piggy’s glasses. Rules in a “normal world” are set against such acts, but the human instinct made these such events possible. Humans will always act upon instinct and their anarchical demands will always win over authority and laws. The traits of human kind can never be controlled.

Rules are however needed in our society to keep law and order, although we should all keep in touch with the instinct inside of us that can never be controlled. We are all human and inside all of us are emotions that are as real as the ones rules allow us to portray. Just like the characters in “Lord of the Flies” we would act in such a way when all rules are removed. I conclude that rules are need in our society to up stand the evil side of human nature and that when these rules are removed all humans will revert to their darker and more primitive side.

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Animal Farm

In the novel Animal Farm, by George Orwell, the animals of Manor Farm decide they have had enough from they’re cruel human owner, Mr. Jones. So they all agreed to think up a plan to overthrow Mr. Jones and take over the farm once and for all. The animals carry out the plan successfully and live as a civil animal community for a good while. Unfortunately, the two leaders of the farm eventually turned on each other to get more power. This incident was similar to what happened back in 1980 during the Iran-Iraq War. The United States worked together with Iraq by supplying Iraq with weapons to fight a country they both wanted to loose power. Unfortunately, after the war, Iraq also turned on us. These two incidents were very similar.

In the novel Animal Farm the animals worked together to get they’re cruel owner out of power. Mr. Jones, the animal’s owner, was treating the animals cruelly. So, the animals decided that they needed to put Mr. Jones out of power so they could live in they’re own utopian world. They took over the farm and they all vowed they would perfect comrades and they wouldn’t adapt to any human customs including drinking, using money, and relying on any type of trade to survive. Then they signify the new revolution of they farm, the animals write they’re modo on the side of they old farmhouse. It stated, “4 legs good, 2 legs bad”. The animal’s so called utopian society looked as though it was going great. Although, slowly, the animals started to adapt more and more like the humans and before any one knew it, the bosses of animal farm, Napoleon and Snowball, began to take advantage of they’re power and almost became one of the humans. Once the two pigs realized they’re power, they both began to try to get one step in front of the other. Before anyone knew it, the pigs were turned on each other over a huge battle of power. So enough, Napoleon ended up winning and kicked Snowball off the farm. This incident was very similar to what happened back in 1980 during the Iran-Iraq War.

The novel Animal Farm relates very closely to the Iran-Iraq War. During the Iran-Iraq War, the Iraqi government and the Iranian government very fighting over land. The war was lasting a long time and was quite large. Both sides had equal power and were basically at a stalemate. Until, the Iranian army started to attack the Iraqi oil shipments. Then the United States decided to intervene to protect they’re supply of oil. So, just like the animals in the novel, the United States and the Iraqi government teamed up for a common cause. The U.S. supplied the Iraqi government with weapons to fight the war and win it. Then after the Iraqi government won the war, they too turned on the U.S. That incident was very similar to what happened in the novel Animal Farm.

These two incidents had many similarities. One of the biggest similarities was how in both novels two people worked together and then turned on each other. In the novel Animal Farm, the two bosses of the farm, Napoleon and Snowball, both fight to get the farm for themselves. Then, out of greed, they fought each other to get sole power of the farm. Basically, they worked together and after they got done what they needed to be done, they turned on each other. Almost the same incident occurred between the United States and Iraq during the 1980’s after the Iran-Iraq War. The United States and Iraq fought together to get something they both wanted and once that was accomplished, they went back to enemy’s. Those two incidents were extremely similar.

The novel Animal Farm, by George Orwell, relates very closely to the Iran-Iraq War. In the novel, the animals of Manor Farm join forces together as comrades to protect the common wealth of all the animals on Manor Farm from Mr. Jones. During the Iran-Iraq War, the U.S. and Iraq teamed up to fight thee Iranians to protect they’re land and oil supply. There were many similarities. One of them was that they both involved joining together to fight for a common cause. Another similarity was that they both involved a war for power and overthrowing one’s ally. Those were just a few similarities between the novel Animal Farm and the Iran-Iraq War.

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Angela's Ashes

The speaker of Angela's Ashes is Frank McCourt. He is a grown man reflecting on his "miserable Irish Catholic childhood." As a child, he was very inquisitive; driven by the desire to learn something new about life and about himself, which often left him confused. Throughout the book, the reader is brought into this young boy's mind, into his heart, his thoughts and his rollercoaster of feelings, as he tries to survive his childhood full of sickness, poverty, hunger, hardship and death. The voice of Frank shows the immaturity of him during his childhood. That juvenile voice magnified the intensity of the book and grabs a hold of the readers attention.

Frank McCourt, it seems, intended to write this book for anyone who has lived, or is living a hard childhood. This audience could relate with what he went through. I think Frank is trying to teach that the struggles that you go through only make you stronger when you have to face the world. He used the lessons that he learned as a child and all of those adversities as fuel to be successful. I think he also wanted to show that if you set your mind to something you can achieve it. Frank set his mind to go to America and he achieved his goal. Frank wrote the book to help people cope with their childhood and teach them how to use their pressures and misfortunes as their pedestal to success.

During the time period of this biography, the world was dealing with the effects of World War 1. Some countries had huge war debts which effected their economy and led some European countries to rely on America for loans and investments. In 1929, the new stock market crashed. Because of the crash, America reduced foreign trade and stopped loans to foreign countries. Farms failed and factories all over the world closed, which caused milions of people to be unemployed worldwide. For these reasons, it was hard for Frank's father to get a job. When he left America thinking it would be for the better, he was wrong because it was worse in other countries. In the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created a program called the new Deal that created millions of jobs.

The effects of World War I led to Fascism and Dictatorships in some countries. In Germany the nazis took over all aspects of the country. In 1933, Adolf Hitler was elected as the leader of Germany. He invaded Poland in 1939 and in that same year Britain and France declared war on Germany; World War II. During the war Germany attacked many countries and conquered them. Some of the countries were Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The war also brought hardship to certain groups of people. The Holocaust put many Jews, Gypsies, communists, homosexuals, handicapped, and Jehovah's Witnesses into concentration camps where they were forced to do harsh labor or they were killed; both women and children. In the book Frank expressed how sad he was about the way children were killed. The war, however, was not all bad. It provided many jobs to people worldwide, whether they joined the army, (either for the English or for Germany), or you worked in the factories making bombs. People in the book even praised Hitler for creating the war so that men could have a chance to earn money for their families. Frank's father did not go and work in the factory in England until after the United States entered the war. They entered the war in 1941 after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th of that year.

In Ireland many people disliked Frank's father because he was from the north. That is because at the time that southern Ireland was trying to gain its independence from England, northern ireland didn't want to. Northern Ireland was Protestant and approved of the Act of Union, which joined Great Britain and Ireland to the United Kingdom. Southern Ireland, however, was Catholic and supported home rule. This led to fighting but a truce was made in 1921 that made Southern Ireland a free state. It wasn't until 1949 that Ireland was declared a republic as a whole.

Many times in the book Frank McCourt related life to death. One time in the book he said "....... and you fall asleep and dream about the pig standing in the crib at the Redemptorist church crying because he and the Baby Jesus and Cuchulain all have to grow up and die." Another time is when he said "The master says it's a glorious thing to die for the Faith and Dad says it's a glorious thing to die for Ireland and I wonder if there's anyone in the world who would like us to live.". Both of these phrases are effective because they reflect how much his childhood was effected by death. From the dog killed by the car, to the death of his two brothers and his sister, to the death of his first love,Theresa, Frank's childhood was surrounded by death which caused him to relate life to death. In these phrases, Frank McCourt, made them come from the voice of a child, which led the reader to feel sorry for him because of how distorted and immature his thinking was.

This memoir, for me, was wonderful. The thought-provoking techniques mixed with the writer's adventurous childhood created an inspiring and funny piece of art. I could connect with the many predicaments that he found himself in and the feelings of wanting to grow up and take care of his family. I can also relate to how he was not taken seriously, whether it was because of his age or because of his social status, and the feeling of helplessness that resulted. This book sparked many emotions in me as I read it and the lessons that I learned are lessons that will stay in me for a long time.

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About A Boy

The novel I have selected for this exploration study assignment is About A Boy by Nick Hornby. There are several complex characters in this novel worthy character exploration. As I was most fascinated by the character development of Marcus throughout the novel, I have chosen to further explore his character. My exploration will focus on the influence Fiona, Will and Ellie have had on Marcus’ character development.

At the beginning of this novel Marcus is portrayed as a misfit with very low self-esteem, and lacking in self-confidence. Marcus considers himself to be weird because his mother Fiona is weird. Although Marcus argues with Fiona when he has a difference of opinion, he loses every argument. As Fiona is a “hippie” from the seventies she insists that Marcus has long shiny hair, and that he wears clothing that is out of style. Marcus is deprived by his mother from listening to current popular music, and is forced to listen to Joni Mitchell. Since Fiona is a vegetarian Marcus must likewise be a vegetarian. Marcus sings for his mother to make her happy, but occasionally forgets himself and sings out loud in public places such as his classroom. It is evident that the influence Fiona is having on Marcus is causing him to be ridiculed and taunted by his peers at school. Marcus has a very difficult time making friends in his new school, as would be friends also get targeted for similar treatment. Prier to meeting Will, Fiona is the only meaningful person in Marcus’ life. His love for his mother, his fear of losing her, and his desire for making her happy are more important to Marcus, than his own well being. Two traumatic events occur on the day that Marcus first meets Will, which profoundly influence his character development. When Marcus accidentally kills a duck at the park, Will comes to his rescue and deliberately lies to the attendant in order to protect Marcus. Marcus is very disturbed by this event but is very impressed by the fact that Will protected him. When Marcus returns from the park with Will and Suzzie he finds his mother unconscious from a deliberate overdose of pills. Fiona recovers from the suicide attempt but Marcus unfortunately stumbles on her suicide note prior to her return from the hospital. The attempted suicide and reading the suicide note have a devastating effect on Marcus’ character. The fear of losing his mother to the suicide haunts Marcus throughout the novel. He especially worries about Fiona when she is acting depressed or is alone at home.
Marcus arranges for Will to take his mother and him out for dinner with the hope that Will and Fiona will develop a relationship. He rationalizes that Will might make his mother happy, and if his mother is happy she will not commit suicide. It soon becomes obvious to Marcus that Will has no romantic interest in Fiona. A major turning point in Marcus’ character development occurs when he decides to befriend Will. He finally makes a decision exclusively for his own benefit.

Marcus shows great determination in pursuing his friendship with Will. He follows Will home from a shopping centre to determine where he lives. From his very visit to Will’s flat, Marcus exhibits great self-confidence. He has no qualms when he accuses Will of not having a child. Marcus and Will soon develop a close relationship that enriches both of their characters.
Will has a remarkable positive effect on Marcus’ character development. 0n one occasion Will chases away several teenagers that are victimizing Marcus at Will’s door. Because of this incident Marcus finally tells Will of his horrible experience at school, as well as his personal concerns. Will teaches Marcus the importance of becoming “invisible” by “fitting in.” Marcus learns from Will that Joni Mitchell is no longer popular, and that Nirvana is “cool.” Will also teaches Marcus the importance of fashion and appropriate hairstyle, and buys Marcus a new pair of sneakers. By having Will as a friend, Marcus now has someone to help him with his concerns. Will also teaches Marcus the importance of assertiveness, and independent thinking. This becomes evident when Marcus challenges his mother on why he must be a vegetarian. When Marcus confesses to his mother that the sneakers, which were stolen from him, had been purchased by Will she learns the truth of his relationship with Will. Marcus is assertive in defending Will and tells his mother that Will understands him better than she does. Marcus finally wins an argument with Fiona when he tells her that he needs a father. Despite his mothers concerns Marcus continues to visit Will.

When Marcus is called into Mrs. Morrison’s office in regard to the stolen sneakers, she advises him “I mean I’m sure you’ve thought of this, but couldn’t you just try keeping out of the way?” Marcus replies, “I’m finished with you” and walks out of the office. When Mr. Patel gives Marcus the same advice earlier in the novel Marcus listens passively. Marcus is now a stronger person, and is no longer willing to take the blame for the abusive actions of others.
When Will spends Christmas with Fiona and Marcus, he encounters a rude reception from Suzzie. As Will is about to leave Marcus proclaims that Will is his friend, and he wants him to stay. Marcus trivializes Will’s previous indiscretions by stating “All he did was make up a kid for a couple of weeks.” Marcus shows great maturity when he feigns enthusiasm while he opens up the “boring” gifts his mother gave him.

Marcus demonstrates his loyalty to Will when he agrees to pretend to be Will’s son in order for Will to impress Rachel. He realizes this is a bad idea, but he cannot refuse his best friend’s request. Will has a negative impact on Marcus’ character development. At Rachel’s place Marcus is verbally assaulted by Rachel’s son Ali. Marcus shows excellent judgment by walking away from Ali and not participating in the lunacy.

Marcus first meets Ellie outside of Mrs. Morrisons’ office. Although Ellie is rude to Marcus she warms up to him quickly and soon becomes his friend. Ellie is a very rebellious girl who bullies and intimidates people to have her way. She is also a huge fan of Kurt Cobain. Marcus feels a new sense of confidence when he is with Ellie as children are afraid to harass him.

On the day that Kurt Cobain attempts suicide Marcus is reminded of his mother’s suicide attempt and begins to cry in Ellie’s presence. It is evident how the fear of his mother committing suicide continues to worry him.

Although Ellie is constantly getting into trouble, Marcus can initially only see her positive attributes. Marcus shows disrespect for his mother when he invites Ellie to travel with him to visit his father. Upon learning of Kurt Cobain’s death, Ellie goes hysterical, becomes drunk, and smashes the window of a music store. Although Marcus is three years younger than Ellie he demonstrates great maturity in trying to console Ellie, and attempts to stop her from drinking. When Ellie commits vandalism, Marcus stays near her and does not consider running away. Once again his loyalty to a friend is witnessed. At the police station Marcus vents his anger by telling Lindsey to shut up and letting his father what a useless father he is. The rudeness of his comments maybe attributed to the negative effect Ellie has had on Marcus’ father.

Marcus comes to the realization that Ellie is a dangerous person to associate with away from school, and is not right for him as a girlfriend. Ellie’s behaviour did not matter much in school because “school was full of walls and rules, and she could bounce off them, but out in the world where there was no walls and rules she was crazy. She could blow up in his face anytime.”

At the conclusion of this novel Marcus’ character has been completely transformed. Marcus’ haircuts and his style of dressing become like everyone else, and he is more circumspect when he speaks. Marcus credits his friendships with Will and Ellie for helping him carry the “loads of life.” He compares these friendships to a human pyramid, “It doesn’t really matter who they are, does it, as long as they’re there and you don’t let them get away without finding someone else.” Marcus often stated, “two is not enough.” Through their new friendships both Marcus and Fiona appear to be well adjusted for the moment.

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A Clockwork Orange

The reader is brought through a night with Alex and his gang. The fifteen year-old was set up by his Droogs and was sent to the state penitentiary, with a new identity - -6655321. Alex is chosen by the government to participate in a new experiment that is supposed to cure him of all his evil. He is given injections of a drug and forced to see films of rapes and murders, which when mixed with the drug gives him feeling if anxiety and nausea. The treatment is supposed to make him associate violence with the panicked feelings. After he is released, he goes back to the home of one of his victims because he is feeling sorry about what he did. The victim is against the new treatment and says it robs the patient the freedom of choice and moral decision, which is depriving him of being a human at all, or a clockwork orange. I think it is brainwashing the patient and forcing them to act a certain way. Alex, in time, attempts suicide and the state gives him more therapy. I think the least chapter of the book shows Alex’s awareness that he is growing up and he realizes he wants a wife and son of his own. Burgess is showing that people can change.

Anthony Burgess wrote A Clockwork Orange to show the importance of one’s own moral choices. The main character, Alex, is a violent thief who has no doubts about being cruel to others. There are many different scenes that are quite disturbing and violent. While reading the book, I got caught up in these actions of Alex and his “Droogs” (what he calls the others in his gang) instead of grasping the real meaning of the book. Burgess sets his book in a time where teenagers ruled the night, forcing real people to stay in their locked houses, and where teenagers can went to “milk bars” and be served milk laced with drugs. I believe the world that Burgess created in the book is to exaggerate the problems of the society by showing the absurdity of it. The society wants everyone to be “perfect” and act a certain way, where in real life I think it is all about making your own decisions.

Burgess’ definition of moral freedom is the ability to do both good and evil. He says it is inhuman to be just good or just evil, but a mixture both. I feel the important thing is one individual’s choice to think for themselves and decide what is good and evil. This is one’s moral choice. Evil has to exist along with good in order for there to be an ethical choice. You need to be able to distinguish between the two to make a choice. I do not think Alex is either good or bad, even after his treatment where the government tries to make him completely good. The government was trying to make him a clockwork orange by only allowing him to do good things and not allowing him to have the choice to do wrong. I suppose Burgess was opposed to the treatment because he believes it to be unethical, even though he was a victim of some one like Alex. His wife was raped and died due to an intruder in Burgess’ home.

Alex ridicules books and education, and gives no regret to his violent acts. I sense he does not steal and kill for money, but for his own pleasure. He does not treat his friends as equals because he is only satisfied when he is in complete control. Throughout the book Alex was depicted as the bad element in society. From the way Burgess depicts the society, I think Alex is the kind of kid the citizens would like to ignore or eliminate. He is viewed as merciless and the treatment is welcomed by society even if it is against Alex’s freedom of choice and identity as a human. The well being of the society as whole is put ahead of individual rights of one individual.

I think the purpose of this novel is to show the conflict of destiny verses free will. Alex lived a life of horror and crime and when he is presented with a chance to change he does on his own will. Each section begins with the phrase “what’s it going to be then, eh?” This shows the repetitiveness of Alex’s life and the vicious circle the society has put him in. In the last chapter he says he wants to find a wife and have a child. I see him growing up and becoming morally responsible when the book ends with “That’s what it’s going to be then, brothers, as I come to the end of this tale.” He is no longer a clockwork orange. Burgess magnified how the government was threatening to take away people’s essential choice to decide. His message is saying it is better to have the choice to do bad then be forced to do good. I agree with the author. If one could not think for themselves, then it would be like everyone is identical robots all controlled by one person, not being able to do what one desires.

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Monday, April 6, 2009

African Americans

While the United States was beginning to develop, conflict between the individual states was the cause for division among America in 1861. When several of the Southern states broke away from the Union the Civil War was starting to fuel. From there one of the most bloody wars in American history took place when the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, the Federal military base in South Carolina. Through all of the battles and deaths, one of the greater aspects of the war was the courage and involvement of African-American soldiers and sailors of the Union army.

In 1861, the United States Navy needed an astounding number of people in order to blockade hundreds of miles of Confederate coast with not many troops. Due to a shortage of sailors, the Navy had to rely on a large number of African-Americans to fill these ranks. Luckily for the Navy, African-Americans have had experience in sailing on ships dating as far back to the Revolutionary War.

African-Americans only represented a small percentage of the Navy’s manpower in 1861, but the exact number can subjected to a lot of debate. Research throughout the 1900’s conducted by different sources ranges the numbers somewhere between nine to twenty-five percent. These numbers equal about 10,000 to 32,000 soldiers. The exact could never be found due to the fact that navy documents never classified sailors by race, weird for the amount of racism going on at the time.

Not only did sailors play a big part in the Civil War, so did soldiers. Not including the Union Navy, about 180,000 African-Americans served in the Union Army. Since white soldiers believed black men lacked the courage to fight, blacks were given the chance to show whites the amount of courage they possessed, giving them a chance for equal rights. Until 1962, Abraham Lincoln feared letting African-Americans into the military. He thought the already prejudice Northern whites might be stirred even more. The fact that he could weaken the more powerful Confederate army by freeing slaves and letting them into the army made him change his mind. This was known as the Emancipation Proclamation.

Although, more than eighty percent of black Union soldiers were from Confederate states, almost all commanding officers were white. More than seventy of one hundred and ten blacks who had superior positions were still harassed until they resigned. This racial prejudice sometimes sprang understandably from white soldiers refusing to take orders from black superiors. Blacks did not only face discrimination in these type of forms. African-American enlisted men received ten dollars a month, three dollars less then any white soldier. Blacks also had an additional three dollars docked off of their paycheck for a monthly charge to provide them with clothing. Eventually pay for African-Americans was increased to normal wage; this was only for men who were free at the start of the Civil War.

Not only were the colored discriminated by the pay they received, but they suffered more than their white comrades. African-Americans were often given inferior weaponry and were almost assigned to the most unhealthy positions. Blacks lost almost 29,000 men to disease alone, nine times as much as were lost due to wounds. It never mattered where black regiments were assigned because they always had to put up with inferior medical facilities and care.

The role of the African-American sailor and soldier can be put into comparison in terms of which situation was better for a colored man. Blacks in the Navy were treated much better. A lot of this had to do with the integration of white and blacks Navy members. The original reason for the two races not being segregated was that it would be out of the question to leave a vessel full of African-Americans alone. It was feared that they would try to get away. Living in close quarters with each other led blacks and whites to learn respect for each other and keep their prejudices to themselves.

Unlike black soldiers, sailors of opposing race received the same amount of pay. Plus there was numerous amounts of benefits being in the Navy. Sailors received “prize money” for the capture of Confederate merchant ships. These prizes were extremely helpful. A sailor could receive several years full of wages by obtaining prize money for captures. Blacks in Navy crews also had standard uniforms and equipment, unlike Negro Union soldiers. Also, Navy crews could be given more equipment and or clothing at any time because there was a superior amount of supplies. Lastly, medical care was lacking in the army. While the army lost about one in every fifteen recruits to disease, the navy only lost about one in every forty crew members.

The reason for my paper being solely focused on African-American involvement with the Union is because the Confederacy found it difficult to assign a meaningful role to a black or a slave in a major war. Confederates refused to enlist them as soldiers but they were often used to be put to other tasks. These tasks included building fortifications, expanding river defenses, repairing rail networks, and assistance in manufacturing. The only time blacks were used in the Confederate army was when states started to secede. Governments of the states had no other choice but to enlist all eligible men to fight due to their primary obligation being to protect their citizens.

African-Americans were involved in some big battles. They had to succeed in these to show that they had the courage to fight well. The first attack by Negro soldiers was in the battle of Island Mound. The 1st Kansas Colored Volunteers made this attack, they were a group of African-American soldiers. This same group took part in the battle of Port Hudson at a battle at Honey Springs. In the latter Union troops ran into a strong Confederate force. Eventually after a long and bloody two hour siege, the Confederates retreated and the 1st Kansas were within fifty paces of the Confederate line.

African-Americans were prominently known for their attack on Fort Wagner, by the 54th Massachusetts in 1963. They volunteered to lead the battle. Although they fought with all their hearts, they ended up having to retreat due to brutal hand to hand combat. At Fort Pillow, over 2500 Confederates were led to attack on a Union fortification held by only about 600 men. Almost all of the Union troops were massacred after being led down into a crossfire perpetrated by the Confederates. The most heroic action performed by a group of African-Americans was during the Battle of New Market Heights. When Union troops were pinned down by Confederate fire, the troops courageously attacked the artillery fire. There were a tremendous amount of casualties suffered, however, of the sixteen Medal of Honor awards given to Negroes during the Civil War, fourteen of them were received by troops in this battle.

There were many other battle in which blacks were involved in, for they participated in every major battle in 1864 with the exception of Sherman’s Invasion of Georgia. All of these situations showed how much courage African-Americans really had during the Civil War. Not only during battle, but being treated unfairly on a day to day basis. Especially for soldiers, they had to put up with tremendous amounts of discrimination in the army, even while having superior positions. At a time where if an African-American was not a slave it was treated like one anyways, blacks had a lot of guts and courage for stepping up and succeeding in the Civil War.

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During the 1600’s, monarchial systems were changing. This was called the Age of Absolutism. Absolutism, the political situation in which a monarch controls all aspects of government, became the type of government in France, under the rule of Louis XIV. Louis XIV was a model of absolute rule. Louis XIV achieved royal absolutism and helped France become the most powerful nation in the world during the 1600’s. His ideas and actions made him be a model of absolutism. Some ideas and actions praised his significance, these included; taking the sun as his symbol, claiming the “Divine Right of Kings,” and having morning and evening ceremonies called, “La levee”. He also had excessive power to control the people and economy. The system of mercantilism, expanding territories, never having the Estate General meet and building Versailles represented how much power and authority he obtained. He created a strong army, gave the nobles special privileges and revoked the Edict of Nantes, which insured his policies would be followed and to eliminate turmoil.

Louis XIV, a Slavic emperor (czar), took absolutism to extremes by claiming himself as a servant of God, known as the “Divine Right of Kings.” This encouraged absolutism. People believed that when you claim the “Divine Right” you power comes directly from God. The French obeyed the Czars orders, fearing that if they didn’t, God would punish them. Louis XIV was known as the “Sun King,” due to the fact that he took the Sun as his symbol. The Sun was the center of the Solar system, as Louis XIV was the center of French life and he is necessary to the survival of France. An event which symbolizes his importance and reflects absolutism was the “La levee.” The “La levee” is a ceremony that occurs in the morning as the Czar rises. At night the ceremony is repeated but in reverse. Nobles competed for the privilege to assist the king, which showed utmost authority over them. By showing his importance through actions and ideas, the French obeyed Louis XIV ordinances leading up to him becoming an absolute power.

Power is an aspect which Louis XIV had. Louis XIV strengthened his own office while weakening the General Assembly of France. Not once did he call the Estate General to meet during his reign. The Estates General is a group of representatives from all 3 classes: nobles, clergy and townspeople. Therefore, the people didn’t get a chance to give their opinion. The czar, ruling an absolute monarch, made sure the people had no power. Colbert, Louis XIV organizer, promoted mercantilism and encouraged overseas trade, which helped to expand territories and increase power. A tariff, or a tax on imports, was then used to make money. The mercantilism policy made France the wealthiest state in Europe. Meaning, the King had control over all aspects of government, from economics to foreign policy, as is the definition of an absolute monarch. If the wealth increased, the power of Louis XIV increased too. There’s a saying, “ Keep your friends close but keep your enemy closer.” This is exactly what the King did by Building the Palace of Versailles. This became the perfect symbol of his wealth and power. Acting as both his home and of the government, it housed 10,000 people, which consist of nobles, bourgeoisie, and peasants. By having his workers live with him, he was able to keep and eye on them, control them and prevent any type of rebellion against him. The circumstances he went through increased his wealth while increasing his power.

One more action that Louis XIV took was to insure loyalty and to eliminate any form of rebellion or threat. He provided nobles with special privileges such as not having to pay taxes and being given the best jobs. Some jobs given were in the government, army or church. He did this to insure loyalty of the nobles. He also created a strong army. This army encouraged him being an absolute ruler because he used the army to insure the policies were being carried out and to put fear in the peoples eyes, knowing that if they didn’t listen to his rules they’d have to deal with the consequences. The army protected the Czar and controlled the people. Another action taken was the revoke of the Edict of Nantes. He took away religious freedom from the Huguenots (French protestants). This encouraged absolutism because it insured religious unity and eliminated the Protestant threat.

Based on his thoughts and actions, during the seventeenth century, Louis XIV is the epitome of absolutism. The actions and ideas of Louis XIV both reflected and encouraged absolutism. These helped him to gain power, symbolize his importance to society and to insure his policies. He ruled for seventy two years and wrote a book for his heirs on how to be an absolute monarch. The book insured that this type of government would last beyond his death. Louis XIV was a model of an absolute ruler.

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Discrimination is the action of distinguishing one person over another as to benefit someone and to disadvantage the other. As a result of discrimination, a person’s human rights are compromised, leading to conflict and tension. Human rights are fundamental rights that are universally regarded as being possessed by all persons inherently. Such rights include a right to life, a right to fundamental freedoms and a right to be treated equally. It is necessary to protect human rights in order to ensure the dignity and worth of all people. The aim of human rights movements is ensure that the law protects these inherent rights and the legal protection is upheld.

The international community has recognised the need to protect human rights since the horrors of the Holocaust in Germany in World War II and as a result, several international agencies have been established in the cause to protect human rights. International rights are those that are recognised internationally as being fundamental rights of people, no matter what nation-state they belong to, or even if they are stateless. Unfortunately, international rights are not as enforceable as domestic rights unless if the international law has been incorporated into domestic law. Therefore, the actions of international agencies are non-legal until they are domestically recognised by a nation state. International agencies, which have been established in attempts to protect human rights, include the United Nations (UN), Amnesty International (AI) and Human Rights Watch (HRW).

The United Nations (UN) is an international forum with its prime function is to promote respect for “human rights” and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion and act as a global security. Its main role is to alert participating governments and the world community to the daily reality that the standards of human rights are too often ignored or unfulfilled and to be a voice for the victims of human rights violations everywhere. Its role is also to press the international community to take the steps that can prevent violations, including support for the right to development. Since 1945, the protection and promotion of international human rights has been UN’s major preoccupation. Over the years, UN has developed a whole network of mechanisms to ensure the primacy of human rights and to confront human rights violations universally. These mechanisms have been non-legal mechanisms as they are not legally recognised until a nation state ratifies and incorporates the mechanism into its domestic law.

One of the United Nation’s main non-legal mechanisms is the collection of intergovernmental bodies dealing with human rights. The main policy-making body dealing with human rights issues within the UN is the Commission of Human Rights (CHR). It has the power to make studies, prepare recommendations and drafts international treaties and resolutions relating to human rights. It also investigates allegations of human rights violations by countries, individuals, groups or NGOs and handles communications relating to them. Another charter-based body that has been established within the United Nations to protect and promote universal human rights is the General Assembly.

The establishment of declarations was also another non-legal mechanism developed by the United Nations to protect international human rights. The United Nations Charter 1945 was a document established as a treaty to bind all members of the United Nations. It has, as one of its fundamental purposes, the promotion of respect for human rights contained in its articles. The provisions of the UN Charter were created to bind member states to observe and respect human rights domestically and internationally. The Universal Declaration of Human rights was slightly similar as it was a document created by the United Nations in 1948. The declaration is not a statement of law but rather a comprehensive list of civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights of all human beings. It has been established to bring international recognition of human rights to be treated equally. Many countries have incorporated the provisions of these declarations into their laws and constitutions. International covenants and conventions only have the force of law for the States that ratify them. The United Nations has various non-legal mechanisms in order to carry out its functions such as the establishment of charter-based bodies and declarations. In the global context, its main area of success in the protection of human rights is by the resolution of tensions before they develop into conflict and the aid for humanitarians after a conflict. Unfortunately, its effectiveness has been very limited in fighting conflict.

Amnesty International (AI) is another example of international agencies which aim to promote and protect human rights. AI was founded in 1961 and is now a worldwide movement of international citizens who campaign for internationally recognised human rights. It works independently from governments, political ideology, economic interest or religion and its main function is to “undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom of discrimination, within the context of its work to protect all human rights.” It campaigns on issues of human rights such as the freedom of all prisoners of conscience, ensures fair trial for all political prisoners and recently, opposes human rights abuses committed by non governmental bodies and private individuals.

In order to achieve its key functions, AI operates with several non-legal mechanisms as it does not have the power of law to enforce its beliefs. AI’s main non-legal mechanism is researching human rights violation issues and publishing reports to inform the news media so that the concerns are publicised domestically and internationally. AI’s ability to inform the public of concerns allows it to mobilise the public to put pressure on governments and others with the influence to stop the abuses. Activities to pressure the governments include public demonstrations, letter writing, human rights education and fundraising concerts. AI’s other non-legal mechanism in promoting and protecting human rights is to support programs that help people learn about human rights and how to defend them. In educating and campaigning, Amnesty International presses governments to ratify and abide by international human rights treaties and to strengthen international human rights standards.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is the largest human rights organization based in the United States and was first started in 1978 as Helsinki Watch. It is composed of more than 150 professionals including lawyers, journalists, academics and country experts. Human Rights Watch’s main function is to promote public awareness of universal human right abuses in order to increase recognition of human rights in bother the international and domestic spheres. It does not have legal enforcement and therefore its non-legal mechanisms are to research and investigate human rights abuses in all regions of the world and publicise these issues into local and the international media. In using publicity, HRW aims to embarrass abusive governments in the eyes of their citizens and the world. If possible, it then meets with the government officials to urge changes in their policy and practice in order to protect human rights within that nation. Human Rights Watch also addresses issues in women’s rights, children’s rights and the flow of arms to abusive forces. By using publicity, HRW press governments and international financial institutions to incorporate human rights concerns into their economic development strategies. HRW functions similarly to Amnesty International, its main differences being that AI addresses a narrower set of abuses and has a larger number of memberships.

The United Nations, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have been very effective in promoting and publicising the protection of human rights but there have been many limits that restrict these agencies from increasing their effectiveness in protecting human rights internationally. The main limit for all international agencies, especially the United Nation, is the lack of enforcement mechanisms. Most treaties created by international agencies are optional, rather than compulsory, therefore the laws and covenants associated with the treaty is not legally recognised and enforced until a nation state incorporates it into the domestic law. Individual nations do not feel the need to report complaints to international agencies due to lack of enforcement mechanisms resulting to slow resolution of conflict. Another reason for the failure for enforcement mechanisms is that there is no global army to enforce the international laws onto each nation state and therefore it is up to the nation’s will to comply with the treaties. The failure of the international agencies to enforce human rights is evident in bloodshed that followed the East Timorese vote for independence in 1999.

The second limit to the effectiveness of international agencies in promoting human rights is that not all countries are party to human rights treaties and therefore not all countries are obliged to protect human rights within its own territory. For example, Rwanda has not been a party to human rights treaties and therefore its government did not feel obliged to protect human rights in the civil battle between the tribal groups of the Tutsis and the Hutus. As a result, campaigns by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch made no effect on the resolution of conflict in Rwanda, leading to the breach of many unrecognised human rights. A significant factor in limiting the effectiveness of independent international agencies such as Amnesty International is the lack of funding. Many international agencies are independent of governments and therefore depend on public donation for funding. Unfortunately, many human rights organizations suffer from a chronic lack of funding, resulting to a lack of resources and a decrease in its effectiveness.

The final main factor which limits the effectiveness of international agencies is the selectivity of international agencies in promoting human rights. As there are usually various conflicts occurring at one point in time, international agencies only target some human rights violations, ignoring the “less important” human rights conflicts. The United Nations, especially, has been criticised for its selectivity as it investigates certain causes for political reasons while ignoring others. Political bias has been a major reason for the selectivity and therefore political bias has to be demolished so that international agencies have greater effectiveness in promoting and protecting international human rights. Most conflicts regarding human rights should be dealt with the same degree of importance so that “smaller” conflicts do not expand into larger conflicts.

Although it is recognised that international law is not as effective as domestic law, it is evident that the significance of international agencies are increasing. International agencies have the ability to pressure governments to stop conflicts or solve tensions but there are still several limits in its effectiveness such as the selectivity of issues and the lack of enforcement mechanisms. However, the creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 has allowed an opening for the enforcement of human rights and universal recognition of the need to promote and protect human rights. If the international agencies are able to find a resolution to overcome its limits, global security and peace will someday be achieved.

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