Wednesday, June 3, 2009

Natural Resource Management

Biological Resource Management
At site two we find the habitat of an endangered bird found only in this area and needs to be protected. This particular site is a natural zone in which I would seek to ensure the protection of its native animals. Native animals are all animal species that as a result of natural processes occurred on land now designated as a park. In order to protect this endangered bird hunting will be prohibited in this area and the amount of human impact will be limited in and around the area. I would also conduct management programs that will help restore the species population by making sure there is an adequate habitat for the birds to live and are protected from any external threats. A small area around the bird's habitat will also be fenced in until the risk of predators and poaching is minimized and the population begins to restore itself.

The U.S Fish and Wildlife Service would also be consulted as well because they are one of the lead agencies in dealing with matters pertaining to federally listed endangered animals.

In site three there is a riverside habitat that is frequently visited by many animals such as deer, antelope, coyote and rabbits. Here is where I would once again commit to the protection of these native animals. Many hunters would see this as a great area for hunting due to the type of animals present, but instead a tour service will be run through the area and hunting will be banned. These are native animals to the park and their population must be maintained in order to sustain the park's ecosystem. If hunting were allowed in this area then the population of these animals would be compromised and so would the ecosystem.

Site seven has a cliff that is home to a small ecosystem of birds, rodents and other small animals. This is a natural zone in which maintenance of all natural resources and activities including diversity, population and plant and animal life will take place. It is here that I would concentrate on keeping control over the population of these animals in order to maintain the park's ecosystem. I would attempt to control the population not by limiting it but my maintaining it and not letting the current population drop. Activities such as hiking and bird watching will be permitted but no activities that would alter the ecosystem in anyway.

Here we have an area consisting of Pinon woodland that is home to many deer and other small animals. This is another natural zone within the park that needs to be taken into consideration when making this plan. In this area a bird sanctuary will be built and have guided tours given as well as camping sites that will be open for use by permit. This is another area in which hunting or capturing of animals will be prohibited to preserve the future of this ecosystem. The zone will also be controlled as to the amount and frequency of human influence. This will be done to make sure the ecosystem is not affected by human presence.

Fire Management
This natural zone has recently experienced devastating affects of a fire that has recently gone through the area burning the grass and shrubs that were in the surrounding area. For this part of the park a fire management plan will be implemented in order to help reduce the risk of such fires occurring for a second time. This was a natural phenomena that luckily did not harm any important vegetation or animal species in the area but did leave an unused open area. With most of this grassland already cleared the off-road track will be moved here from site 5. With the off-road track taking place here it will prevent most of the grass from growing back which reduces the risk of fire. The land being used in site 5 has more moisture and will be used for more useful purposes.

Paleontologic Resource Management
This is a special designation area in which the oldest human settlement of 35,000 years has been discovered and research is being conducted. The area will be blocked off from all persons not related to the research and be restricted to research and educational purposes only. The area will be managed to provide the most amount of protection to the site by preventing natural occurrences that might affect the site like erosion, wind and water. This will be done by the construction of a shelter over the area to allow the research to be conducted indoors and safe from any outside threats. The area will also be declared a World Heritage Site because it is a natural area that possess an outstanding universal value as part of the world's natural heritage.

Geological Resource Management
This is where an old mining village consisting of rotting buildings and one collapsed shaft that fell into the mountains. In some cases developments like pathways and ventilation systems might be allowed for public use and development that won't significantly alter the cave environment. Any necessary construction will not be allowed in this area as it is far too fragile to support such a development unless it can be proven that the construction will not significantly change the cave environment. Apart from guided tours around the site there will be no human presence allowed through the area except for research purposes.

Water Management
This was a site where off road vehicles were informally used until they were moved to site 8, where land has already been cleared by a fire. The site will be named a park development zone because this is where recreational fields for baseball, basketball and tennis will be built and the track torn down. The stream that runs north of the site will allow fuel-burning watercraft but it will be regulated in accordance to the Clean Water Act. The stream will also have designated camping and picnic areas along the stream for public use and enjoyment. Certain areas will be regulated at particular times because of water monitoring studies that will be taking place in order to secure the preservation of water within the park

Air Resource Management
At this site we have an old mining village with collapsed shafts and buildings that are falling apart by the day. The National Park Service's primary goal is to ensure the best air quality in parks because it is critical to visitor enjoyment, human health, preservation of natural systems and cultural resources. Historic structures are sensitive to air pollution and need to be considered when monitoring air quality. The highest measures will be followed to make sure the air quality within the park is acceptable and complies with all federal, state and local air quality regulations. This will be done so by monitoring and documenting air quality, determining air polluting impacts and their causes and measuring air quality related values within the park and especially around the historical site.

This is a prehistoric site in which air quality is once again of extreme importance and needs direct attention. Prehistoric sites have the same sensitivity to air pollution as the historical structures at site 4 and can be damaged just the same, which is why air quality must be at a high level. In order to protect this site from potential damage, air quality will be monitored and recorded to comply with the Clean Air and Organic Acts. Programs will be instated that fix and prevent future impacts on the park's resources that resulted from man made air pollution and develop control plans and regulations.

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Global Warming

Imagine being responsible for something like this. A giant asteroid hit the earth about 65 million years ago. The scientist speculated that the collision threw so much dust in to atmosphere that the world was dark for three years. As a result, sunlight was greatly reduced, plants could not grow, temperatures fell, the food chain collapsed, and many species, including the dinosaurs became extinct. We, as human beings, are causing something just as profound, but in a subtle manner, as the asteroid that felled the dinosaurs. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth's temperature has risen about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century and global warming has accelerated dramatically during the past two decades. We have changed and continue to change the balance of gases that form the atmosphere, which leads to these climate change and global warming.
Most of the warming over the last 50 years is attributed to human activities. Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases (explained in the illustration 1) that primarily consists of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, atmosphere concentration of carbon dioxide have increased nearly 30 percent, methane concentrations have doubled, and nitrous oxide concentrations have rose about 15 percent. The combustion of fossil fuels and other human activities are the primary reasons for increase in carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels, and wood products are burned. Methane, on the other hand, is emitted during the production of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emission also results from the decomposition of organic wastes and solid waste landfills, and raising livestock. Nitrous oxide is released during agricultural and industrial activities. Other greenhouse gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), are discharged by industrial processes. Due to these human activities, the consequences of climate change could be detrimental to the mankind and earth.

As a result of these human activities, rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels, expand deserts, change precipitation and also alter forests, crop yields, and water supply. According to a recent study reported in Science, Alaskan glaciers currently loose about 15 to 33 cubic miles of ice per year, which contributes about 1/100 of an inch annually to global sea levels. As an effect, Alaska has warmed by about 5 degrees Fahrenheit since the 1960’s ( Arendt, 382). A research conducted in the Himalayas suggest that twenty glacial lakes in Nepal and twenty-four in Bhutan are filling up so rapidly from melting Himalayan glaciers that scientists believe they may overflow and burst their banks within the next five to ten years, putting lives and property at risk. The change in precipitation causes evaporation cycles to speed up and may leave soil drier during critical parts of the growing season. The droughts, especially in poorer countries, could reduce supplies of clean water to the point where there are major threats to the public health. A warming of more than 2.5 degrees Celsius could reduce the global food supply and crop yields. The rising global temperatures could affect human health because the ozone layer blocks almost all UV radiation, which plays a significant role in the formation of skin cancers, eye cataracts, immune system deficiencies, and other health maladies. A one percent loss of stratospheric ozone equals two percent increase in skin cancers and one percent increase in eye cataracts worldwide. Cutting the emission of carbon dioxide not only decreases greenhouse effect, but also simultaneously reduces other harmful forms of air pollution, like those that can cause smog and worsen health problems like asthma. Therefore, developing programs and initiatives that reduces the greenhouse effect is a necessity that benefits everyone globally.

Climate change is a global issue that requires collaborative action from the entire international community. Countries from around the world are currently working together to share technologies, experiences and resources to lower greenhouse gas emissions and decrease the threat of global climate change. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an agreement through which countries are banding together to meet this challenge. Under the convention, each country that is a party in the convention that must develop a greenhouse gas “inventory” listing of its national sources (i.e. Factories and transport) and “sinks” (forest and other natural ecosystem that absorb greenhouse gases). These inventories must be made public so they can be monitored. The unfairness to the climate change problem is that the developed countries, such as America, have created their wealth in part by releasing large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere long before the consequences were understood. In 1997, United States alone was responsible for one-fifth of the total greenhouse gas emission. Now the developing countries fear being told to cut down their industrial activities for the sake of the climate. In response, the ‘wealthy’ countries agree to support climate change activities in developing countries by providing financial support to adopt new efficient and environmental friendly technology (i.e. Solar power), instead of burning environmentally harsh fossil fuels. By utilizing climate friendly technology as well as promoting sustainable development, the UNFCCC seeks to “stabilize the greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent interference with the climate system” ( IEM, 135).

Climate change is a global challenge that entails international solutions and international cooperation among countries. Along with the UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that stands on its own, but is linked to the existing UNFCCC. It affects every major sector of the economy, and is considered to be the most far-reaching agreement on environment and sustainable development ever adopted. The Kyoto Protocol sets legally binding targets and timetables for cutting developed country emission. The Protocol commits the developed countries to reduce the collective emissions by at least five percent between the years of 2008-2012. It assigns a national target to each country through political negotiations and compromises and offers additional flexibility to the countries that are in transition to allow the developing countries to grow. The Kyoto Protocol serves to strengthen and build in the future. Thus, the Kyoto Protocol is a sign that the international community is willing to face reality and start taking concrete actions to minimize the risk of climate change.

Through research and education, various non-governmental organizations (NGO) are raising public awareness about the need to cut emissions. The World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) are pressing the policy makers to introduce effective measures and forming innovative partnerships with progressive businesses. Friends of the Earth (FoE) work collaboratively with other NGO’s to campaign against global warming. These organizations are expanding their role and influence around the world. NGO’s offer a great way for people to get involved and make a difference locally in their community or globally throughout the world. Even if one does not want to join an organization, one can still make a difference by the choices one makes in the electricity usage, the waste production, and personal transportation. Thus, the consequences of climate change are global; therefore, all must share the responsibilities in reducing it.

In conclusion, as our needs continue to grow and develop, international cooperation will become more important as the global community searches for ways to meet the climate change challenge efficiently and effectively. Thus, the key to successful cooperation is finding activities that will help all countries achieve their economic, environmental, and developmental goals in a climate-friendly manner.

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Ethical Issues

Every major company has or should have a code of ethics that its’ employees can abide by in order to accomplish the companies mission successfully. This code of ethics should include the Obligations of the employees, the Ideals or goals of the company and the Consequences of negative actions or performance of the employees. My prior company which I worked for was a cargo airline company that had code of ethics the human resource department created. There were some good statements provided, but human resources had no idea what was going on in the public sector, therefore, some of the ethical laws did not apply to all parties in the company. Companies need ethical policies, guidelines and restrictions, their ethical policies should be well promoted, well tailored to the company, companies’ mission, and the employees that run the company. Ethic statements should be easy to understand, be applicable, and able to motivate all types of attitudes.

The question remains, “Why do we need a code of ethics in our workplaces?” “Why don’t we just let people decide for themselves the type of ethical standards they should be governed by?” the simple reason is this; if we did not have guidelines that people must follow there would be chaos throughout the company. People are different; they come from all types of religious, cultures, and races, therefore, may have different views on how issues should be run. The purpose of an ethical statement is to make all races, religions and people’s differences work together applying certain parameters or guidelines for the benefit of the company. A company’s ethical statement also sets a positive work environment for its’ employees and helps to deal with everyday issues or distractions that might come about during day to day activity. Finally, it sets the standard to which employees can reference to when a problem or grievance occurs within the company; the ethical statement may be used to solve such issues. If we did not have a code of ethics then people would not know how to behave; they would be unaware of what is acceptable and unacceptable.

A good code of ethics is clear, easy to understand and applicable to its employees. For example “Someone would create an ethical statement explains that construction workers have to have the highest profession appearance at all times while performing their duties.” Sometimes, it might be better to make one set ethical statements for the entire company and then generate a separate sub-code of ethics for each department that is involved within the company, basing that code of ethics on the first one. This was not the case at my prior company. Human resources set up the code of ethics and had no idea that most of the content never applied to half the company. Furthermore, they had employees view it at the start of employment, sign it and then it was never seen again. To this day, I still cannot remember what was on that code of ethics nor have I ever had to run over it, but for the purpose of this paper I had one e-mailed to myself. The point is, in my opinion, the company should have had its’ ethical code posted on the wall for everyone to see. While they were daydreaming at work, glancing around the office, their eyes would glance at it enough times that their brain would recall it. If I were to take a survey on how well the employees at my old company new their Obligations, Ideals, and Consequences for their workplace, the outcome would be (I’m being generous) about half would have no idea. Awareness was definitely a concern with their particular ethical code. Another company I used to work for used to send their code of ethics over the e-mail and take advantage of new technology; they used to send it at one o’clock on Friday afternoon. This was great to take advantage of the new technology, but let’s be honest, who has the companies code of ethics on their mind at that time of the day and above all else that time of the week. The furthest thing from my mind on Friday afternoon was the company’s code of ethics; most people just used to hit the delete key, deleting the code of ethics permanently.

If I had a company, I would have the code of ethics up on the wall with some type of visual stimulation that was pleasant to view. I would have my Obligations, Ideals and Consequences become well known throughout my company. My employees would be so sick of hearing them they would abide by them just so they do not have to hear them again. If I had separate departments I would create a sub-code for the individual departments, For example if I had a sales department I would not put a statement like, “Employees must be on time each and every day, otherwise be subject to disciplinary action.” I would rephrase that statement to say, “Employees must meet their quota each and every week.” This way, my employees who work in the sales department will remain happy because they will set their own hours while I’m smiling because my production is being met.

At my last company, a negative influence was brought forth in the workplace, but nothing was ever stated on this subject in their code of ethics except that employees must respect one another. The negative influence was, “fraternization.” If this were my company, I would create an ethical statement that stated, “Romance has no part in the workplace and fraternizing with upper management will not be tolerated with the exception of company functions.” I would have my employees sign a disclosure understanding this ethical statement; that if suspected of having sexual relations with anyone in the company they will go under investigation and may be terminated for provable cause. This was a problem in my last company and I’m sure exists in so many large corporations. The females who were lazy, never made quota, never did their job resulting in someone else carrying their weight, always received the better reviews, the better perks and the least stress, for the simple fact that they were involved with the right people. Many employees quit the department because of this and were fed up working twice as hard for the same compensation in pay; we lost grade A workers this way. This was a negative influence in the work environment, but no one seemed to acknowledge this. If I were to improve this company’s ethical code, I would have it drawn up in more detail and made sure everyone was both aware of the code and able to understand the statements.

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Life's struggles, seem to remain the same no matter what day of age. Technology and the advancement of the human race has little or no effect on what people still battle with on an everyday occurrence. In the play of “Antigone” the conflicts of humanity vs. the gods, the state vs. the individual, women vs. men, youth vs. age, and the living vs. the dead, in Ancient Greek society are explored. Contemporary audiences can still strongly relate to these conflicts even though taking place in ancient times. Antigone even by modern times would be more closely sympathized with than Creon, because of the common values which we are still taught today. These values are loyalty, persistence, the freedom to practice religion and most importantly honor the dead.

Within the play there is much outweighing evidence which supports, such as the common people and how they still put the decree of the gods over any laws made by men. Even the Chorus who closely follows and obeys Creon, disagrees with his decision to not allow the burial of Antigone’s brother, Polyneices. Today laws are written to take into account the basic underlying morals and beliefs of all religion, not completely so that there is no separation between the state and religion but so that they both acknowledge each other.

When reading this great tragedy “Antigone”, I found the struggle of power in the story to be overwhelmingly clear. This power struggle allows for the great strife that both the State and the People have to overcome. Two people in this tragedy represent these two groups; Creon the leader of the civilization or the state, and Antigone who stands for the free will of the people.

The State in most cultures sets laws and regulations in order to maintain the populous. Creon who represents the state is a very hard, determined, and strict leader. Do not get the wrong impression though, Creon is as strict as he is, to show his country and people that he is unwavering and stands for everything he says. Throughout much of the story Sophocles gives us the impression that Creon has no compassion. But, it is clear when his son Haimon, who is also Antigone’s lover, comes into the picture how much he cares for his son. Both Creon and Antigone show much loyalty throughout the play but it is the loyalty of Antigone with whom people not only in the play but by today’s readers side with. Antigone’s dedication to her family is also unwavering, even when faced with criminal punishment she presses on with even more strength.

Antigone represents the other half of the struggle in this great tragedy who, stands for the moral and free will of the people. This story is very interesting because it talks about the conflict, which happens daily in our own country, State vs. Religion. Antigone, who is trying to bring peace to her dead brother, has the most to overcome. Her brother, who committed treason by fighting in an army against his own, died in battle and was declared a traitor by Creon. This entailed no proper burial and the defacing of his name. When Creon proclaimed this, he wanted to make a statement and an example out of Antigone’s brother. Creon, who represents the state and the laws which govern the state, has to abide by them. He is in a position where he can’t waiver because if he falters and goes back on his word he will lose the confidence of the people. What kind of leader would Creon be, if he created laws which could be ignored in certain cases; he would have an uprising and be thrown out of power. The interesting thing is that this story is a Greek tragedy and the Greeks had a very spiritual background, which consisted of many gods and superstitions. Even today religion still plays a major role in most everyones lives; even if not everyone practices religion. Religion is what has set many of our social and moral boundaries.

Antigone and many of the people believed that since her brother was not buried, that the gods would not rest until his flesh was one with the earth. During the time that this was written, the gods played major roles in naturally occurring events and this idea carried over into Antigone’s and the people’s belief. Even though laws were in place and the people were happy to abide by them, the laws of the gods surpassed those of the state.

Antigone who in a sense becomes the people’s moral and spiritual leader, takes it upon herself to bury her brother. At this point in the play is where Antigone starts to show her persistence and her relentlessness to see her brothers natural right carried out. This action even though in her own mind is justice being served, is no better than her own dead brother’s, in the eye of the Creon and the state. The body is found buried by Creon’s men and is dug up, this saddens Antigone once again and she then attempts yet another time to bury him but this time she is caught in the act. Before Creon knows it is Antigone, his own chorus questions whether or not “it be the gods [who] have done this?”(DiYanni p.817) When Creon learns that it is not the actions of the gods and rather that of Antigone’s, he sentences her to death. When this happens people start to for tale disaster for the future. In order to take blame off of himself, instead of sentencing her straight to death, he has her holed up in a cave where she will starve to death and not die in the public eye. This obviously makes no sense and an old wise friend of Creon named Teiresias tells him that his own blood will perish if Antigone is not released. Haimon, Creon’s son ends up dying from a self-inflicted wound in honor of his dead lover, Antigone Creon learns to late that what he has done has lead to his own kin’s death. He also learns that ultimately the laws of the gods and the spiritual world run deeper than laws created by man. Even today laws are written to not offend the views that of any person but are still there to provide boundaries for us to conduct our daily lives within. Religion is always a touchy subject when it comes to the whole of man because not everyone practices but most everyone believes in some higher being. When being a spiritual animal, humans have basic essential believes especially when dealing with the dead. What happens to us after death is different for all of us but most people believe that we should exit this world with some showing of respect, this is usually done with some sort of ceremony. Ceremony’s for different religions may not be the same but the basic concept is. Creon was imposing his view upon not only Antigone but the whole society in which he governed. People even though they knew Polyneices was a traitor still did not want to upset the gods by not properly burying him.

Take what is even happening today for example, there are many known terrorists who are on trial for their lives. If they are found guilty of their charges they may be sent to death, but their bodies wont be left out for “No friend to pity him, [or for] his body [to be] shredded by dogs(DiYanni p.838). No matter how harsh someones crime may be, they are still givin the respect of a burial or however they want their body disposed of. So in the play, Antigone was just trying to do what she believed was the honorable thing to do and that was to give her brother a proper burial.

The values of loyalty, persistence, freedom to practice religion and to honor the dead were clearly carried out by Antigone. These basic values are still very strongly believed in, even in contemporary society. Today, with or without religion people still understand the importance of having clear cut devotion for the ones we love and to never waver with this devotion. And, to make sure our dead are seen to have an honorable closure to their lives. When these basic values were not upheld and carried out by Creon, this clearly was why Antigone who in today’s standards was more closely related to.

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