Saturday, March 28, 2009

Racism in the USA

According to Longman's Dictionary of American English, it defines racism as "Political and social practices where one believes that their race is the best." Among many issues that United States are facing today, racism rank as one of the most difficult issue to face. Most racism victims in United States are African American, Chinese and Jewish. So in this research paper I want to focus on:
- What is the biggest group of racism in US? How do they think about racism?
- How African American get racism? Who are the most important people to fight against with racism, what are their ways to solve problems?
- How Chinese get racism?
- How Jewish get racism?

As the definition above has stated, racism will only happen if one person from certain race think that his/her race is superior among others. While some people have mild discrimination toward other certain races, some people or organization actually go to the extreme to define their principle, such as the Ku Klux Klan or famously called as KKK.

Ku Klux Klan is an organization that was built on the principle that Caucasian American is the best race and that other races are inferior. They were first famous during the 1870s where they would kill people that were either other races or supporters of those races. Veterans of Confederate Army organized them. They were dressed in white robes and sheets and their motto was "Save white America". They gradually faded and arose again in 1915 and reached its peak on 1920s with 4 million members. Racial tolerance and Government attempts to stop them later lower their members to few thousands. Ku Klux Klan is one of the biggest racism terrorists group in United States.

African American racism
Many significant figures stand out during the history of United States to stop racism. Some stand out by speaking in public while others use form of media such as novel and movies. Among these figures that stand out by speaking in public, Martin Luther King JR and Malcolm X are probably the most famous one. Martin Luther King JR is famous for his "I have a dream" speech. Martin Luther King JR speak in public and try to persuade everybody to see that violence will solve nothing and that violence itself is root of all evils.

Malcolm X, unfortunately used violence to solve this problem. They may have different views but they have one cause. Martin Luther King JR has always believed that "good" white people is existed while Malcolm X has always believed that there is no "good" white people leading him to fight violence with violence. This statement was clear in his book titled "The Ballot or The Bullet" page 261 where he said "Usually, it's the white man who grins at you the most, and pats you on the back, and is supposed to be your friend. He may be friendly, but he's not your friend". Malcolm X would do anything to get his point across for example barricading him and his supporters. Fortunately, later in his life, Malcolm X came to realize that there are "good" white people as he stated in his book.

"I tried in every speech I made to clarify my new position regarding white people - 'I don't speak against the sincere, well meaning, good white people. I have learned that there are some. I have learned that not all white people are racists" (The Ballot or The Bullet, 367)

Martin Luther King JR and Malcolm X are now remembered as the most important figures in history that paved the way for United States to reach a country where there is no racism.
Many authors also support no-racism in United States, such as author of "To Kill a Mocking Bird", Nelle Harper Lee. In this novel about racism, a black guy, a slave was wrongly accused of raping a woman that he works for. While the whole town believes he was guilty of what he was accused of, one man stood up for him and tried to free him in the court of law. During the court, many irrelevant evidences were shown and yet everybody still believes that he is guilty and ignored the valid evidences that he is innocent. The author was trying to say that black people could easily be the scapegoat for any crimes. Although in the end of the movie the black guy died in the hands of the villagers, this novel has a big impact on society because it proves that racism is still large in United States.

Chinese racism
Other races that have fall victims to racisms include Chinese and Jewish. Chinese were first immigrated to United States with the same reason the European came, gold and there were famine and poverty times in China. During the mid 1800s, discrimination against Chinese reached its peak. Chinese was welcomed to work with American but not to live with them ("Welcomed, but donбпt live with us; segregation is order of the day"). This was worsen with the Congress' Chinese exclusion act in 1882 stating:

"Whereas, in the opinion of the government of the United States the coming of Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof."

While Chinese that has families residing in United States were excluded from this act. Later, loopholes were found and the immigrants would brought false papers showing that they have families in United States. To avoid this, later in 1910, Immigration station at Angel Island was built. This station was more like a prison for the Chinese where they are interrogated and were forced to live like prisoners for weeks, months or even years. Some chose to escape their humiliation by suicide. Life for the detainees was very stressful because they would be placed in small crowded living quarters. One hundred people would sleep in one bunk bed, three high in columns in a room about 1000 square feet.The interrogation was also a frightening event. The immigrants would be asked detailed and irrelevant questions designed to trap the detainees. Many of the immigrants express their anger by writing poems about their treatment and detainment on the wall. Fortunately in 1940, this act is abolished and the immigration station has become a historic landmark until now.

The most famous racism that has ever happened to Jewish is probably during the ruling of Adolf Hitler in Germany where many Jewish were caught and thrown into concentration camp to work. This movement were called the Nazis and stopped for a while until Neo-Nazis came out. Neo-Nazi or Neo-Fascism refers to any political or social movement founded on the ideology of Nazism or Fascism.

According to, Neo-Nazi and Neo-Fascism movement are generally racists, anti-semitic and xenophobic. Anti-semitic means when a person is hostile toward someone because they have Jewish ancestry and xenophobic means dislike toward foreigners. Neo-Nazi was formed in the 1960s and gained more followers when Germany was united. Most of their followers are teenagers from Eastern Germany. They would burn people with Jewish ancestryбпs houses or Jewishбпs houses. Unfortunately, until now, Neo-Nazi is still around and although they have fewer followers but they still remain a threat to Jewish.

From above information that I have presented, the similarities among all of them are the fact that a certain type of people believed that their races are superior to others and they would go to the extreme to make sure that their nation only populated with this certain race. While I believe that most people tend to discriminate certain races mildly some people actually go too far to prove their principle for example the Nazis and KKK.

Among all the similarities from above examples, we can conclude some differences. First of all, we can conclude that black and Jewish people got it the worst because they were actually killed and tortured. Chinese on the other hand, received bad treatments while none of them are actually murdered on purpose by anyone. Some of them chose suicides as their way of escape.

Racism can only be stopped if all human races realized that we are all equal and that colors are only skin deep. Racism can have very simple solution, unfortunately it is complicated because of how one race discriminate others will cause both of the races to discriminate each other. For example, black people were being slaved during the 1800s and because of this, white people think that black people are inferior to them. During the 1900s many white people came to realize that black people are also human being and that they should treat them the same. This might seem like a happy ending but in reality, racism didnбпt fade because by then black people had hate white people and they think that white people is their enemy because of how they were treated. Therefore, I believed that the only solution to racism is an understanding among races that everybody is equal.

In conclusion, racism is a very important issue in United States. Racism is born when a certain people or organization feel that they are superior compared to other races. There are many historic figures that try to stop racism such as Martin Luther King JR and Malcolm X. I believed that racism only could be stopped if there is understanding among races.

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Adoption may be defined as the process of providing parents for children and children for families when birth parents are unwilling or unable to care for their offspring.” Adoption has been practiced throughout history. In the past years adoption seemed to be a working solution to problem situations. In the late nineteenth century the United States legislature began to grant legal status to adoptive parents. By 1970 some 175,000 children were adopted in the United States. In recent years adoption has become a distinct benefit for thousands of children in need of parents (Bender 12).

Bender states that there are more than a half-million children eligible for adoption in the United States. Americans adopt more than 100,00 children every year (13). For many children and adults the word adoption represents hope and joy. Approximately 440,000 grandparents, siblings, and other family members are affected by these adoption connections. Connections are really what the adoption process involves; in many cases, these bonds are joyful and life long (McKelvey XV). Olasky believes that adoption works well for the majority of adoptive children, for birth mothers, and for those who adopt children with special needs (24).

Adoption is a three-faced entity. The circumstances in any adoption affects three groups—the children, the adoptive parents, and the birth parents. All three groups have much to gain through the adoption process. Adoption is a sensitive subject that touches the hearts and souls of all three groups. It enriches the lives of all who are involved (Moe 42-43).

Adoption enables the lives of many children to be transformed. “Adoption offers children who are orphaned, abandoned, neglected, abused, or unwanted a chance to live in a stable, loving environment.” The adoptive parent-child union is commonly looked at as sanctified because the adoptive parents provide a needy infant with love, a home, and nurture. Studies indicate that adoption works well for the large majority of adoptive children. The adoptive children have parents to raise and love them as they grow up (Bender 261-262).

Adopted children have the potential to become blessed, healthy, and productive members of loving families. Being a member of a caring family can help them to become “responsible and compassionate adults capable of making positive contributions to their world while raising happy and healthy children of their own” (McKelvey x). Thousands of children throughout the world have been legally abandoned by their parents. “Adoption is right for some people.” Bill Berle, adopted son of Milton Berle, states that he had a good adoptive family. Without adoption, Bill Berle’s life might have been a lot worse and not as happy (Pro-Adoption Viewpoints 2-4).

A major concern and debate about adopted teenagers involves whether they will have problems growing up healthy and successful because of factors related to their adoption. Studies reveal that, on the average, adopted teens seem to be doing well. Half of adopted youth indicate they are as happy as their peers, and thirty-eight percent say they are happier. Adopted teenagers benefit from the vast support of family, friends, and other people involved in their lives. Being a part of a loving home enables the adopted children to be involved in positive, structured youth activities. Studies have indicated that adoption has helped many children to become stronger in their personal identity and self-esteem. They exhibit higher levels of caring and behavior that they, otherwise, might not have had (Bender 246-250).

McKelvey states that in America more than one million potential parents have a singular goal—to adopt a child. Adoption gives adoptive parents the wonderful chance to love and raise a child. Many aging baby boomers have found that their biological clock has run out. Other people who adopt may have infertility problems, and their dream of children may seem impossible. All of these people must turn to someone else to fulfill their dreams; adoption is their only hope of having a family (ix-x).

Infertile parents can acquire the parenting opportunity that they long for and can also gain a new understanding of their lost fertility (Bender 56-57). Studies indicate that some adoptive parents have biological children, but they feel that they have room for one more. Many adoptive parents adopt older children because of their concern for others. They want more children but do not want to add to the overpopulation of the world. Therefore, they become adoptive parents (Moe 2-4).

Bender contends that adoption provides the birth parents with the opportunity to gain control of their lives. By giving a child up for adoption, birth parents may feel like their child has a better future. Adoption enables them to give their child a nurturing home that they may not have been able to offer. Birth mothers will have a grieving time for the child who is adopted. Most of these mothers are glad that they have given the child a chance for a better life. Some birth mothers say, “I knew that something can hurt a lot and still be the right thing to do” (24-25, 56).

McKelvey states, “Hundreds of thousands of children spend their lives in limbo.” Society needs to continue the efforts to adopt children. Adoption enriches the lives of children, birth parents, and adoptive parents. “It is with knowledge and conviction that adoptive relationships can grow and mature. It is also important to remember the old adage: To change the world, start by changing just one child” (177-181).

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On September 11, 2001 at 8:46 A.M. Americans awoke (with=to) the reality of terrorism. The events that unfolded changed our country; it changed the way that we looked at terrorism forever. Americans have heard about terrorism in the past, but no incident had ever struck so hard or so close to home as this one did. This was the worst terrorism attack on the United States since the Oklahoma City Bombing in April of 1995. American(s) watched in awe as terrorists hijacked four planes: two that hit the Twin Towers in New York, one that crashed into the Pentagon, and one that was successfully stopped by heroic passengers in Pennsylvania (Wrobleski, 2003). The threat of terrorism has always been real, but on this day it was brought to light. Unfortunately, there are different types of terrorism that is possible, many of which Americans do not realize. While terrorism is at its greatest, it is important for Americans to know what types of terrorism there are, what (stems=surs?) terroristic acts and what we can and are (we) doing to prevent it.

While the different types of terrorism have not been classified, they have been broken into six different types: Nationalist, Religious, State-Sponsored, Left-Wing, Right-Wing, and Anarchist. Almost each terrorist act that has happened can be placed under one of these categories. Regrettably, there have been new forms of terrorism that have started to surface. These would be bio-terrorism and domestic terrorism (Council, 2003). In order to understand terrorism as a whole we must look at the background and history from which it stems.
Nationalist terrorism can easily be seen in the terrorist group the Irish Republican Army. Many nationalists, such as these, do not see themselves as terrorists, but as mere freedom fighters. They excuse their actions by stating that they are trying to fight for national liberation of their country. The I.R.A. (Irish Republican Army) is an organization that wants to end British rule and unify with the Republic of Ireland. Since the late 1960’s, the I.R.A. has killed more then 1,800 people, many of which were targeted British troops, police officers, and judges (Council, 2003). In July 2002, though, the I.R.A. offered its sympathy to those families that they have killed, and has since partially disarmed and has called out for peace, (although=delete) they admit that they are still an armed force who opposes any foreign occupation in their country (Sullivan, 2001).

Religious terrorism consists of many faiths and cults. They believe that they have the right to commit violence due to their beliefs. Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda network is one of the major religious terrorist organizations in the world (Council, 2003). One of the goals of the al-Qaeda network was to oust the United States Armed Forces out of Saudi Arabia with whatever force and acts necessary. Osama bin Laden’s network took full responsibility for the crimes committed on September 11, 2001. Since then, though, the al-Qaeda network has bombed Pakistan and Tunisia, committed suicide attacks in Bali, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia, and has attacked aircraft over Kenya and the Atlantic Ocean (Terrorism, 2002). The al-Qaeda network has continued to terrorize the world despite global efforts to stop them.

Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Cuba, North Korea, and Sudan are the seven countries that the United States (had=has) declared state-sponsors of terrorism. Even though the United States has made efforts to decrease state-sponsored terrorism, it remains at an all time high. One of the most active countries is Iran, who has continued to sponsor major terrorist organizations such as the Lebanese Hizballah, the Palestine Islamic Jihad, and Ahmad Jibril's PFLP-GC (United, 2001). State-sponsored terrorism is one of the worst types of terrorism. This is because it allows the group’s access to the money and means necessary to carry out their acts. A state-sponsored country tries to take the blame away from the country itself, and puts the blame onto a particular terrorist group, while funding the group in the shadows (Council, 2003).

Left-wing terrorism usually seeks not to hurt people in a country; rather they try to free the country of capitalism by destroying monuments and kidnapping capitalist leaders (Council, 2003). One of the major left-wing terrorist groups is Italy’s Red Brigade. First attracting attention in the 1970’s, they continue to kidnap and murder top political and educational citizens in Italy. They are responsible for bombings in Rome, Milan, and Genoa. They are also responsible for the murder of Italy’s former Prime Minister Aldo Moro; it was a murder that shocked Italy, and it was comparable to the murder of J.F.K. in the United States. Police in Italy are still issuing warnings for top party officials in Italy; a sure sign that the Red Brigade is still active and harmful (Israely, 2003).

Just this past September German officials took custody of eleven neo-Nazi’s. Also taken into custody was 30 pounds of explosives and hand grenades (Boston, 2003). The neo-Nazi’s, to this day, represent right-wing terrorism. They want to overthrow democratic governments in exchange for a fascist government (Council, 2003). Nobody can forget the attacks that the neo-Nazi’s led against the Jews some 65 years ago. Although lacking structural organization, there have been some minor attacks by the neo-Nazis since the 1930’s. There have also been some spin-off groups that claim to hold the same goals as the neo-Nazis; one of these groups is the Baader-Meinhof gang. The Baader-Meinhof gang has been responsible for the murders of German business leaders and politicians, and the attacks on United States military posts in the past two decades (Boston, 2003).

Anarchists want to overthrow established governments. They were big during the 1870’s until the 1920’s. A major example of an anarchist attack is the murder of the United States former president William McKinley, who was killed in 1901 by a Hungarian refugee (Council, 2003). It is a fact that anarchists remain, even in the United States. There are many websites dedicated to the overthrowing of the United States government, and these websites have been made by our own people. One website,, even answers questions ranging from how to become an anarchist to what anarchy could do for the United States health care system. With the protests of globalizations on the rise, experts are expecting an increase of anarchist violence (Council, 2003).

New technology and scientific developments are being discovered every day, and along with them comes new waves of terrorism. One of the most frightening types of new terrorism is bioterrorism. One of the most publicized acts of bioterrorism has been the anthrax scare that has riddled the United States. The fact is that bioterrorism can strike anyone and anywhere. It can be in our food, it can be in our air, and it can even be in our water. Bioterrorism represents "the most significant national security threat in the 21st century," said Tara O'Toole, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies. She also states that the most possible bioterrorism attacks include anthrax, smallpox, and biological agents in out water and food supply. Currently the United States has teamed together five agencies with the preparation and prevention of a bioterrorism attack: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, FDA, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (Posner, 2003).

Another new category of terrorism is domestic terrorism. Groups that fall under domestic terrorism include animal rights activists, pro-life activists, and environmentalists (eco-terrorists). We have all heard some of the insanely acts committed by one or more of these groups. One of the major domestic terrorist groups is the Environmental Liberation Front (E.L.F.). They have attacked car dealerships, burned down apartment complexes, and torched laboratories. An animal activist group, the Animal Liberation Front, has been responsible for $45 million worth of damage in at least 600 arsons and other incidents. Unfortunately, the crimes are always traditionally covered. The American Legislative Exchange Council states that state legislatures “make no legal distinction between the common thug who vandalizes a public park and an organized ecoterrorist “ and “this allows for a significant circular turnover rate, where criminals return to their organizations to commit further crimes in other locations or jurisdictions” (Bandow, 2003). In Conclusion, many Americans still do not realize the Total Threat of Terrorism, but after reading this paper I hope to convey to others the effects and the different Types of Terrorism. I believe this country is a lot more informed than it used to be, after the events of September 11th, 2001. Also you can see it in the way this country is trying to protect itself. 1) Increased Security of National Airports. 2) Increased Security at all major Military Installations, 3) More involvement in Overseas Affairs. 4) Increased Security at many Federal Buildings, and 5) Just an overall better idea of what Terrorism really is and just how important it is to protect ourselves from the Threat of Acts of Terrorism.

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