Wednesday, July 1, 2009

Engineering Essay

From the beginning of human existence, man has identified ways to improve the standard of living. Electricity was one of these identified ways. The development of electricity led to the creation of electrical engineering, a challenging vocation that changed and improved our way of life. In this paper I will discuss the history of electrical engineering, the preparation for becoming an electrical engineer, and the actual career.

The history of electrical engineering is rather recent, but it is based on ancient ideas. Electricity and magnetism are the two bases for electrical engineering. The Greeks were the first to discover the nature of attraction of amber and lodestone. The Chinese, on the other hand, were the first to control the power of magnetism. Therefore, they understood how to magnetize steel from lodestone. The Chinese used their knowledge of magnetism to create the first compass in the third century A.D. Then came the first dedicated observers of magnetism, Roger Bacon and Peter Peregrinus, during the Renaissance period. Dr. William Gilber also wrote the first meaningful book, De Magnete, about electrical science in the 1600Тs. Gilbert discovered the first electrical instrument, a versorium, which is an electroscope for detecting the presence of an electrical charge. There were many others who contributed to the advancement of electrical engineering such as: Robert Boyle, Otto von Guericke, Benjamin Franklin, Aslessandro Volta, Luigi Galvani, Georg Simon Ohm, Michael Faraday and many more. Robert Boyle, in 1675, wrote about the mechanical origins or production of electricity. Otto Von Guericke, of Magdeburg, Germany, observed, for the first time, sparks and heard crackling sounds when attaching objects using magnetism. Benjamin Franklin was a giant in electrical science. He coined the terms "conductor" and "nonconductor". He also theorized that lightning was an electrical display (History of Electricity 1). Aslessandro Volta created the volt, the unit of electromotive force, in 1900. Luigi Galvani was a professor of anatomy at the ancient University of Bologna (Kingsford 17). He discovered, when experimenting with dead frogs and electricity, that frogsТ legs twitched when two different metals, copper and zinc, were made to contact them. This was significant because it led Volta to finding the Voltaic pile, the first electric battery. Georg Ohm discovered Ohm's Law when at Cologne caring out experiments (20). Michael Friday was one of the greatest scientists of all time. He has been compared in greatness to Galileo and Isaac Newton (21). Friday brought electricity and magnetism together and discovered a new source of current, electromagnetic induction. His discovery was the basis for the electric motor and laid down the laws of electrolysis. Without all these contributions by the founders of electricity, our technology would not be as advanced as it is today.

College preparation is key to becoming a successful engineer. Consequently, it is beneficial to find others that are interested in electrical engineering. Being involved with students who have similar interests, most likely, will improve one's chances of success. Likewise, one should meet with one's high school career counselor and ask what kind of classes one must take to prepare for an engineering major in college. A person interested in engineering should get suggestions as to what must be done to prepare for such a career. Thirdly, one should ask parents for support and advice to advance one's exploration in engineering. In addition, one should let teachers know of his interest in electrical engineering in case they can provide more information (Jets). Chris Abrahamsen of Pace Engineering said, "I prepared for electrical engineering by taking all the math and science classes I could in high school. I also worked one summer while in college to help determine what area of electrical engineering I would like to pursue."

If one wants to be an engineer, keep up with one's communication skills. I often write reports that are technical in nature that need to be simple enough for a non-engineer to read and understand. I used to hate English, but now I spend just as much time attempting to clearly communicate with others in writing as I do in performing actual engineering work. I wish I paid more attention in my English classes in school. (Abrahamsen)

In preparation for the decision of which field of engineering one is interested in, one could job shadow an engineer. Also, one could get involved with some engineering related projects in society (Jets). These projects can let one know about certain disciplines and if these disciplines are of interest. The steps to preparing for engineering seem quite basic, but completing all will be time consuming and extremely difficult.

Electrical engineers regularly apply what was learned in college in their daily work. For example, at Cal Poly University, the Electrical Engineering Department's goal is to educate students to achieve excellence in the discipline of electrical engineering. This is why Cal Poly S.L.O is considered to be one of the best electrical engineering colleges. The engineering program at Cal Poly is difficult to get into. One must have worked extremely hard and one must have received outstanding grades in high school to be admitted. Cal Poly tries to educate their students to the point where they can apply their knowledge to practical problems (Cal Poly).

Electrical engineering graduates should be looking at many job opportunities since electrical engineering is supposed to grow with the average of all other occupations. Job openings will be due to the increased demand for electronic goods, including advanced communications equipment and defense related electronic equipment. For example, in 2000, electrical engineers held 288,000 jobs. For example, electrical engineers were employed by: business consulting firms, government agencies and manufacturers of electrical, electronic, computer and office equipment (Occupational Outlook Handbook). Electrical engineering, despite being an impacted major, has a promising outlook as a career after college.

Electrical engineers are characterized by specific categories and for whom they work. The main purpose of an electrical engineer is to: design, develop and supervise the manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of electrical systems (Job Guide). In todayТs technological society there are building/construction, public work, educational institution, military, and design house engineers (Electrical Engineers). None of the subcategories is better than another. Personal preference determines which one an engineer will choose to pursue.

Much of the research done, concerning electrical engineering, is done in cooperation with industrial and government institutions. The main topics of research are: electronics, control, communications, computing and power systems (Kreuzer). Since electrical engineers are expected to be able to calculate every element within their field, they are highly trained through "higher education" (Electrical Engineers). The different engineering departments often team up and work together. For example, electrical engineers may team up with mechanical engineers to design equipment with electrical control (Electrical Engineering). The work opportunities within the electrical engineering field are numerous and varied. Thus, it appears to be an exciting career in which to be involved.

Electrical engineers make a beginning salary that is often determined by the number of years of college one completed. The median salary for an electrical engineer was $64,910 in 2000. Graduates with master degrees have an average starting salary of $63,812 per year. Graduates with doctorate degrees make an average of $79,241 per year. The highest ten percent of engineers earned more than $94,490 a year. According to a 2001 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, electrical engineers received a starting salary of $51,910 per year (Occupational Outlook Handbook). Although electrical engineering is not one of the highest paid careers available, it will provide for the economic needs of most.

The life of an electrical engineer is interesting, complex and varies from engineer to engineer. For Chris Abrahamsen, "A typical workday is from 8:00-5:00. Usually there are projects that I am working on which require electrical engineering design. Some of the projects might involve water/wastewater facilities, office buildings, schools etc." Electrical engineering hours are similar to most other jobs. One might sometimes put in over time with or without pay. A person's conscientiousness and dedication most often determines how successful one will be. Electrical engineers must keep up with new technologies.

Keeping up with technology is an on going process. I attend regular conferences and seminars to keep up with the most recent technology. I also subscribe to numerous technical journals and magazines, which I never seem to have enough time to read. Also, manufacturing representatives often drop by my office and let me know of their latest products. In order to keep my professional registration in the state of Arizona I am required to attain a certain number of continuing education units (CEU) every other year. (Abrahamsen)

One must also love the job in order to be successful at it. One should not go into a career because it makes a lot of money if one cannot stand doing the work. One could suffer from "burn out", which may cause the quality of work to suffer. Chris Abrahamsen said this about his job as an electrical engineer, "I very much enjoy my job. I enjoy the variety of things I do and the fact that none of our projects are exactly the same. I enjoy the challenge of solving difficult problems and seeing the results afterward." Electrical engineering is not a career for the average person. One must be interested in math and science and enjoy problem solving.

The founders of electricity did our society a great service. They made a difference by developing a science that has greatly improved our way of life. Not many Americans go through a day when they do not turn on one electrical appliance, use something electronic, or deal with something that uses magnetism. If scientists did not discover electricity, our society, today, would not be as advanced.


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Human Cloning Research Paper

Through and through the annals of time, from one generation to another, there has always been overwhelming wonderment and mystery on the topic of cloning. Whether they thought it was ethically right or wrong, nearly every person that has lived a significant life has, one way or another, dreamed about what it would be like to have a double another human being that seemingly looks, acts, or possibly even thinks exactly the way they do. And as time passes by throughout each generation, evolution occurs. As a result of this, life as we know it advances to an entire new level. Everything from plants and animals, to our own physiques and minds, increases in its overall development. In our modern day, there is one thing in particular that has evolved at an alarming rate technology. With this on-going advancement of technology, the possibility of human cloning appears to be just around the corner. Major controversy has risen in spite of this, and rightfully so, as the possibilities, both good and bad, of human cloning are presumably endless. Everyone seems to have their own opinion on the subject of human cloning, including religious leaders, political figures, and modern society dwellers. Is human cloning right, or is it wrong? Although there is not a correct answer to that question, as it is solely based on opinion, I will, however, cover as much information as I possibly can in the following essay to attempt to enlighten your very own beliefs and opinions on the topic of human cloning.

Before I proceed any further, you must understand exactly what cloning is. According to Human Genome Project researchers, cloning is "the copying of genes and other pieces of chromosome to generate enough identical material for further study." ( What this basically means, in others words, is the copying of oneбжs genes to produce an exact duplicate of those genes. There have been numerous methods of going about this, some of which have been successful (ex. Dolly the sheep) and others have been a complete failure. Nonetheless, if a human were ever cloned, which may or may not ever happen, it is believed by many that the procedure would be as follows:

1. "Doctors harvest up to 15 eggs, each from up to 40 donors who have been injected with fertility drugs. About 400 eggs are produced.
2. Cells are taken from the cloning candidate.
3. The nucleus of each egg is sucked out with a fine needle. Then the DNA-free eggs and the donor cells are placed next to one another and zapped with electricity, which cause them to fuse. Some of the rebuilt eggs divide to form embryos.
4. Because embryos often fail to implant, each surrogate moth gets several at once. Even so, up to 50 surrogates could be needed to ensure nine of ten pregnancies. Of these, most will terminate early by miscarriage or by abortion when abnormalities are found. The single viable baby may be normal." (Gibbs, 02/19/01)

Although it is unknown at this time that whether or not the above procedure to cloning could ever work, it is quite possibly that the route to human cloning would be very similar to the process that was just stated.

As there often is with most controversial issues, human cloning has two sides to the story a good side and a bad side. These sides are both known, respectively, as the pros and cons of human cloning. Since the possibilities of human cloning are seemingly endless, the amount of pros and cons that occur with cloning are quite lengthy. However, some of the main points that deal with the pros and cons of human cloning include the following:

  • There is no better way of understanding the human genome
  • Ability to produce "superhumans"
  • Will all but cease the production of lab animals
  • Medicinal methods will be thrusted into a new era
  • Further understanding of our past (i.e. Evolution, creating, big band, etc.)
  • Organ transplant waiting lists will be no more

  • Humans are sentient beings, they are no made to be specimens. The are of free will
  • Ability to produce "superhumans"
  • Countries could clone armies
  • If humans can be cloned, it makes them property, which can be sold. Inhuman
  • If cloning is relied upon for reproduction and we lose the ability to clone, everyone will have the same genotype and to reproduce would be a sick twist of inbreed
  • If everyone has the same genotype, a disease that is fatal for the genotype wipes out the human race" (
As you can probably tell, by reading above, that cloning can really be beneficial as much as it can be harmful, or vice versa. While it can appear to destroy lives through the possibility of a deadly disease, it can also appear to save lives through the cloning of human donors. That is why the issue of human cloning has become such a dispute in society everywhere. However, no matter where you go, whenever the topic of cloning is brought up, it is always mentioned that we don't know enough about human cloning to actually go through with it. Which, more or less, is a correct statement. We need to know everything there is about the human cloning to ensure there will be no major negative results. But how will we ever know unless we try it? That debate seems to be how society, in general, feels about human cloning, which has a variety of opinions.

As is the case with most topics of controversy, the opinions that society has on human cloning are of great variety. Be that as it may, the overall feeling of cloning in society appears to be bad. In a poll that appeared all across North America, Time/CNN asked, "Is cloning a good idea or bad idea?" (Gibbs, 02/19/01) The results were a landslide - 90% said cloning is a bad idea, while only 10% said it was good. Despite the leanness towards cloning being a bad idea, there have also been many cases in society that have been voiced in it's approval. For example, "While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive case that it would do any real harm, either." (Macklin, 03/10/97) And, as well as that, "Cloning is the key to humanity's future." (Boyce, 07/09/01) Nevertheless, the fact of this still remains, the majority of society feel that it is a bad idea. But why you ask? In another poll that appeared across North America, Time/CNN asked, "What is the main reason you are against cloning humans?" (Gibbs, 02/19/01) The results were close, but are as follows: 34% said they are against human cloning because of religious belief, 22% said that it interferes with human individuality, 22% also that it could be used for questionable purposes like breeding a superior race, and finally, 14% said the technology is dangerous. Although there was a large gap between each result, there appears to be one significant reason to why society feels human cloning is a bad idea - religious and ethical belief.

It's no secret that religion is against human cloning, as they are the most passionate about what is right and wrong in this world. Obviously, to them, cloning is very wrong and is an act of God's work. Some religious views on cloning include: "Cloning is entirely Gods work; he makes about 4 000 a day through identical twins." (Gibbs, 02/19/01) "For a scientist to do mechanically what God does naturally is to interfere with his work, and no possible benefit can justify that presumption." (Gibbs, 02/19/01) "If God had meant for man to fly, he would have given us wings. And if God had meant for man to clone, he would have given us spores." (Bailey, 05/01/97) While it is apparent that this opinion will not soon change, there are some religions, very few, that agree with human cloning. Of these, is the Raelians, who "are a religious group committed to welcoming the first extra-terrestrials when they appear and are convinced to create the first cloned human." (Gibbs, 02/19/01) With that being said, even religion has it's agreement with human cloning, which is just a fragment of the belief that that there are two sides to every story.

In conclusion, I would just like to say that the controversy that revolves around human cloning will never be resolved, at least not in the near future. While the fact is that "98% of human embryos never implant or die off gestration or soon after birth," (Gibbs, 02/19/01) it is also a fact that human cloning can save possibly save lives. (Ex, "a grieving couple whose child is dying" Macklin, 03/10/97) Ethically and morally human cloning appears to be wrong, but will this stop scientists from doing it? As I stated above, there is no real answer to the question if cloning is right or wrong, and there is no telling what the results of a human clone may be. That being said, is cloning the greatest breakthrough in scientific history, or is it a timebomb waiting to detonate? The answer to that questions relies upon time and the future of civilization.


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Cloning Essay

The successful story of the cloning of Dolly the sheep was a big step forward for the scientific world. However, it also triggered much controversy on different issues about cloning such as whether or not we should permit cloning on other animals, specifically humans. Human Cloning should be permitted since it will do great things for us such as allowing couples who are unable to reproduce have a biological child, keep recessive genes alive and provide the ability to produce organs to save lives and cure diseases.

Allowing couples unable to reproduce through procreation to have a biological child will most certainly prove to be a better alternative for those couples instead of adopting a child. Sterile women will now have the chance of having a biological baby to experience the full extent of having a child. Before with adoption they may not have cared for the child as much as they could whereas, now with the option of cloning a biological child can be produced which may give the parents more pride in the child’s achievements. (Gibbs, Nancy. 2001). As well as sterile women, homosexuals who wish to have a child with their life partner will be able to have a biological child. (President's Council on Bioethics, Cloning-to-Produce-Children; Cloning-for-Biomedical-Research, Nov 28, 2001). Widows are unable to have children with their partner since they have passed away, however with the help of cloning they could create a baby with the genes of their partner giving them something to remember their deceased loved one by. The loss of a loved one is always tragic and some people may be clouded by thoughts and strong emotions that their judgement may be impaired which may in the end take their life, with a biological baby it will give them something to live for as well as someone to care for again. (Gibbs, Nancy. 2001). Cloning children is definitely a good idea since it allows everyone to be able to have the opportunity to experience having their own biological child, however whether they take this opportunity is up to them.

In addition to reproduction, through cloning, recessive genes will not be shadowed by the dominant gene traits and disappear eventually. As Canadians we have had encounters with many different cultures and friends of many different backgrounds. We take pride in our society’s multiculturalism and diversity. Without cloning the diversity that we cherish so much will disappear before our eyes. All the red hair, blonde hair, blue eyes will one day be extinct if we do not keep them alive by cloning. The day that the recessive traits die out may occur millennia’s from now, however if another genocide was to take place; a whole race would most likely be wiped out with the weapons that nations possess now. With the aid of cloning it would be impossible to wipe out an entire race since more genetic copies of the race could be reproduced countless times. Moreover, the stereotypical view of cloning is that everyone becomes the same, no one is unique or considered an individual, however in reality, with cloning it will only keep the diversity and individuality of everyone since natural breeding would eliminate recessive gene traits making everyone identical with the same dominant genes. As Canadians along with many other nations which encourage diversity, cloning should be acceptable to maintain these recessive traits.

Although cloning may not be an issue or affects everyone directly, every person most certainly would encounter it indirectly. In November of 1998, the discovery of stem cells was publicized. Although so far stem cells have only been found in stem cells are cells in the body that have not been assigned to transform into a certain type of tissue yet. ("Stem-Cell Research" Issues and Controversies, August 13, 1999. Using stem cell technology we could clone specific organs from the person’s own cells so their body will definitely accept the new organ. These organs would be very beneficial since there would be no need for donors to donate an organ for the transplant. This way, more lives can be saved and it will guarantee success as long as doctors perform the procedure correctly since the organ is made from the patient’s own stem cells and DNA. Stem cell technology is still in its early stages. However, if we allow the research of cloning to continue we would be able to produce a donor that is a perfect match for the patient or possibly be able to produce organs which will in turn eliminate the need for donors. For instance, if a child was ill and needed a kidney, they could clone the child and use the clone as a donor. This would result in two healthy and living children living with two very satisfied parents. (Genetic Encores: The Ethics of Human Cloning, Unknown. If we were to talk about the near future, the most likely medical advancement along the lines of cloning would be DNA research to create vaccines against viruses. Vaccines could be created using DNA structures to counteract deadly diseases such as AIDS, cancer etc. (Lemonick, Michael D., 2001). With the usefulness of cloning and DNA research, we would greatly increase the life expectancy around the world and save many lives.

On the other hand, some people still think that cloning should not be permitted on humans and they argue that it is a sin to play God. In a telephone poll 69% of adult Americans felt that human cloning is playing the role of God and would mean that we are defying his will. (CNN Poll Report. Feb 2001). People will use cloning to breed elite armies for war and treat them as soldiers rather than humans, which is inhumane and letting them live without a purpose, literally living to die. (Bova, Ben. 1995). Some even argue that cloning a child will only make the parent want the child to follow in his footsteps and possibly give the child a chance to experience all the things that the parent didn’t have the chance to do. The parent may take the child’s success as his own achievements since through cloning the child would basically be a younger version of himself. (Genetic Encores: The Ethics of Human Cloning, Unknown.

These are all legitimate points; however, they have over looked the fact that sins are a natural part of life. Everyday we commit sins, so it does not differ from our regular routines. A sin of claiming to be God is no different from a sin like jealousy, what it all comes down to is that we have committed a sin. Humans have played God on countless occasions that this argument doesn’t carry much meaning anymore. “It’s in the Bible-be fruitful and multiply. People say ‘you’re playing God.’ But we’re not. We’re using the raw materials the good Lord gave us. What does the doctor do when the heart has stopped? They have to do a direct massage of the heart. You could say the doctor is playing God. But we save a life.” (Rebecca, 2001). Also if clones were bred the fight, and given no choices, then if they did not feel it was fair according to their rights then they could rebel. Only if they accepted the terms of their designated task would they attempt to cooperate with us. Otherwise they would rebel and make a bold statement since they are bred to fight. (Bova, Ben. 1995). The parent of a clone may push their child(ren) harder to strive for success and follow in their footsteps to possibly become the parent’s dream that never came true. This may sound unfair to the child(ren) and harsh since there is so much pressure of the child(ren) being like their parent. However if one were to examine at families right now, one would realize that many parents are doing the same to their child(ren) right now. They hope that their child(ren) will follow them into their field of profession. This is merely pride working on behalf of the parents and regardless of whether the child(ren) is a clone or not, certain parents will still pressure their child(ren) into becoming what they want their child(ren) to be. Moreover, even with the added emphasis from the parent on become what they want their child to be, the clone will most likely never live up to the expectations and dreams of the parent since they are brought up in a whole different manner and period of time. (Reed, Susan. 2001).

Cloning will prove to be a huge asset in the future because it will allow couples to have a biological baby when nature does not, it will keep the recessive genes alive and it will save many lives through organ transplants and DNA structures to create vaccines. Cloning must first be recognised as a great advancement for the scientific and medical fields rather than just another act that goes against the wills of God who shall punish us for our misdeeds. “We should not let our fears hold us back from pursuing our hopes.” (Kennedy, John F.)

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